Monday, November 10, 2008

Forts, Barracks & Arsenals Of The United States 1855-57

I have already done three pagers on forts and thought that would be it, then I ran across a report that I couldn’t pass up. I hope this information will help you know more about the fort you are researching.

Note. This information comes from: Statistical Report on Sickness and Mortality of the Army of the United States, Volume I. 34th. Congress 1855-1857, and is the geographical positions of the military posts.

1. Fort KENT, MAINE—South bank of St. John’s river, at the mouth of Fish river. Country rolling and open.

2. Fort FAIRCHILD, MAINE—South bank of Aroostook river, six miles from its entrance into the St. John’s. On a local eminence 100 feet above the river, with a hilly or undulating forest back-ground. Exposure generally open.

3. HANDCOCK BARRACKS, MAINE—Houlton, eastern boundary of tile State, near the St. John’s river, Locality similar to that of Fort Fairfield. Position and altitude by Major Graham. 1844.

4. FORT SULLIVAN, MAINE—Moose island, Eastport, the most eastern point of the State.

5. FORT PREBLE, MAINE—Cape Elizabeth, south side of Portland harbor. Exposure open, and mainly seaward.

6. FORT CONSTITUTION, NEW HAMPSHIRE.—On a point at the mouth of Piscataqua river, Portsmouth harbor, and three miles eastward from Portsmouth.

7. FORT INDEPENDENCE, MASSACHUSETTS—On Castle island, Boston harbor, three miles southeast of State-house, Boston. Full marine exposure.

8. WATERTOWN ARSENAL, MASSACHUSETTS.—At Watertown, on the Charles river, six miles west of State-house, Boston. An inland and protected locality.

9. FORT WOLCOTT, RHODE ISLAND.—On Goat island, Newport harbor, half a mile from the town of Newport. The exposure is open, principally over water-surface, and toward the sea.

10. FORT ADAMS, RHODE ISLAND.—Brenton’s Point, in Newport harbor, entrance to Narragansett bay, one mile westward from Newport. Open and free exposure, mainly marine. Some rocky elevations in the vicinity.

11. FORT TRUMBULL, CONNECTICUT.—On the right bank of Thames river, one mile south of New London, and two and a half miles from the shore of Long Island Sound. Exposure free and open, yet less direct to the sea than other ports of the Atlantic coast.

12. FORT HAMILTON, NEW YORK.—At the Narrows of New York harbor, on a point at the southwest corner of Long Island, and six miles south of New York city. Exposure particularly open seaward.

13. FORT WOOD, NEW YORK.—On Bedloe’s island, New York harbor, two and a half miles south of New York city.

14. FORT COLUMBUS, NEW YORK.—--On Governor’s island, New York harbor, very near the city of New York. It is much less exposed to direct sea influences than Fort Hamilton, though surrounded by the waters of the river and bay.

15. WEST POINT, NEW YORK.——On the west bank of Hudson river, fifty miles from the sea. The locality is surrounded by hills, varying from 600 to 1,400 feet in height on the west, except on the line of the river. Its confined position has .a marked effect.

16. WATERVLIET ARSENAL, NEW YORK.—At Watervliet, above Albany, on the west bank of the Hudson river, and nearly opposite to Troy. The locality is surrounded by hills and an elevated back country, and is much confined. It has local peculiarities somewhat like those of West Point.

17. PLATTSBURG BARRACKS, NEW YORK.—At Plattsburg, on the western shore of Lake Champlain. The back country is rough and elevated. Thompson, the post is 90 feet above low water of the lake.

18. MADISON BARRACKS, NEW YORK—At Sackett’s Harbor, on Lake Ontario, on the southern side of the bay formed by the entrance of Black river into the lake. Distant from the lake eight miles. The exposure is generally open and over a level district.

19. FORT ONTARIO, NEW YORK—At Oswego, southern shore of Lake Ontario, on the east bank of Oswego liver. Exposure generally open, and particularly so toward the lake. Its local elevation 50 to 60 feet above Lake Ontario.

20. FORT NIAGARA, NEW YORK—On a point of land at the mouth of Niagara river, and nearly surrounded by the waters of the river and of Lake Ontario. Exposure particularly level and open.

21. BUFFALO BARRACKS, NEW YORK.—At Buffalo, in the northern and most elevated portion of the city. Exposure generally free, yet not directly open to Lake Erie.

22. ALLEGHANY ARSENAL, PENNSYLVANIA.—At Pittsburg, three miles northeast of the city, and on the immediate bank of the Alleghany river. The position is confined and local in a great degree, with elevated districts at a distance from the river, and high bluffs bordering it.

23. CARLISLE BARRACKS, PENNSYLVANIA.—At Carlisle, in a valley opening to the Susquehanna river at Harrisburg. At the northwest there is a considerable mountain ridge, but the locality is generally open.

24. FORT MIFFLIN, PENNSYLVANIA—On an island in the Delaware river, five miles below Philadelphia. Open exposure, with much water surface.

25. FORT DELAWARE, DELAWARE.—On an island in Delaware river, four miles from Newcastle, Delaware. Exposure open, with much fresh-water surface.

26. FORT MCHENRY, MARYLAND.—On an arm of Patapsco river, three miles southeast of Baltimore. Exposure entirely open and free, with much water surface.

27. FORT SEVERN, MARYLAND—Near Annapolis, on Severn river, at its entrance into Chesapeake bay. A very level and open water exposure.

28. FORT WASHINGTON, MARYLAND—On the east bank of the Potomac river, fourteen miles below Washington city. At the east of the fort there are low hills, and the locality is somewhat confined and glen-like.

29. FORT MONROE, VIRGINIA—At the terminus of the western shore of Chesapeake bay, on a sandy beach known as Old Point Comfort. An open exposure of water surface, within reach of the sea influence through the wide entrance of Chesapeake bay.

30. BELLONA ARSENAL, VIRGINIA—On the right bank of James river, twelve miles from Richmond. An open exposure, elevated 100 feet above the river.

31. FORT MACON, NORTH CAROLINA—On the point of Bogue island, near Beaufort. Direct ocean exposure.

32. FORT JOHNSTON, NORTH CAROLINA—At Smithville, mouth of Cape Fear river. Exposure over water surface mainly, and open to the sea.

33. FORT MOULTRIE, SOUTH CAROLINA—On Sullivan’s island, entrance to Charleston harbor, eight miles from Charleston.

34. AUGUSTA ARSENAL, GEORGIA.—On an elevated position, three miles from Augusta, two miles from the Savannah river at tile nearest point, and 200 feet above the river at Augusta. Among sand-hills, with a free exposure.

35. OGLETHORPE BARRACKS, GEORGIA.—On low ground, one mile south of Savannah and twelve miles from the ocean. Level exposure over salt and fresh water surfaces.

36. FORT MARION, FLORIDA.—At St. Augustine, on the shore of St. Augustine bay. Level exposure over fresh and salt water surfaces.

37. FORT SHANNON, FLORIDA.—At Pilatka, on the west bank of the St. John’s river, near twenty miles southwest of St. Augustine district. Generally level.

38. NEW SMYRNA, FLORIDA.-- East coast of peninsula, on the right bank of Halifax river, eight miles from Mosquito bar, and two miles in a direct line from tile Atlantic. The whole exposure entirely level and open.

39. FORT PIERCE, FLORIDA.----At Indian river inlet, east coast of peninsula, on tile shore of St. Lucie sound, and separated by it from the immediate shore of tile Atlantic. A level district and open exposure.

40. FORT DALLAS, FLORIDA.—Near Cape Florida, east coast of peninsula, on the Miami river at the inner shore of Biscayne bay. Separated by this narrow bay and a point of land from the ocean.

41. KEY WEST BARRACKS, FLORIDA—At Key West, Florida Keys, sixty miles southwest of Cape Sable. Direct sea exposure, with but a small area of land surface.

42. FORT MYERS, FLORIDA. —Near Charlotte harbor, west coast of peninsula, on the bank of Caloosahatchee river, near its mouth, and several miles from the immediate coast of tile Gulf. Position from the United States Coast Survey.

43. FORT HAMER, FLORIDA—-North of Charlotte harbor, west coast of peninsula, on a stream tributary to this bay, and some distance from the coast.

44. FORT BROOKE, FLORIDA. —At the head of Tampa Day, west coast of peninsula, about thirty miles from the Gulf of Mexico. The surrounding country is low and level, as at all stations of the peninsula.

45. FORT MEADE, FLORIDA—In the interior of tile peninsula, forty-six miles east-southeast from Tampa Bay, and near tile Kissimmee river. Its location is on a comparatively elevated sand ridge, higher than any adjacent land.

46. FORT KING, FLORIDA.—In the interior of the peninsula, east of Cedar keys, about forty miles from the coast of the Gulf of Mexico, and sixty miles from the Atlantic coast. The surrounding country is slightly undulating, alternately sandy pine barrens and marshy hammocks.

47. CEDAR KEYS, FLORIDA—On the western coast of the peninsula. The keys or islands are several miles from the main land.

48. FORT BARR.ANCAS, FLORIDA. —Entrance to Pensacola harbor, near Pensacola. The locality of the barracks is about one and a half miles west of the navy yard, on the west side of the entrance to the bay, and about eight miles southwest of Pensacola, Exposed to the Gulf.

49. FORT MORGAN, ALABAMA—At Mobile Point, entrance to Mobile bay, near seventy miles south of Mobile.

50. MOUNT VERNON ARSENAL, ALABAMA.—Near Mobile river, about thirty-two miles north of Mobile. The post has a local elevation of near 200 feet above a small branch of the river, Coon creek.

51. EAST PASCAGOULA, MISSISSIPPI.—-At the mouth of Pascagoula river, or on islands near it. An open Gulf exposure, surrounded by low beaches and water surface.

52. PASS CIIRISTIAN, MISSISSIPPI.—At St. Louis bay, entrance to Lake Borgne. (A summer station.) Open exposure to the Gulf.

53. FORT PIKE, LOUISIANA.-—On the north side of Petite Coquille island, entrance to Lake Pontchartrain, thirty-five miles northeast of New Orleans. The influence of the winds and atmosphere of the Gulf is quite decided, the whole exposure being over water surface or very low shores.

54. FORT WOOD, LOUISANA.—South of Petite Coquille island, seven miles southwest of Fort Pike, and between Lake Borgne and Lake Pontchartrain. Exposure less open than that of Fort Pike, and with a predominance of freshwater surface and marshes in its vicinity.

55. NEW ORLEANS BARRACKS, LOUISIANA.—On the north bank of the Mississippi, three miles below the centre of the city. The locality is protected by forests to some extent from the winds of the Gulf. Position that of New Orleans ; from Nicollet. Altitude of the river at the Barracks eleven feet above the Gulf; the hospital is placed at ten feet above Lake Pontchartrain, which is at mean sea-level, nearly.

56. BATON ROUGE BARK&GW5, LOUISIANA.—At Baton Rouge, on the east bank of the Mississippi, one hundred and forty miles from New Orleans. The locality is on the first bluff met with on ascending the river. Exposure open.

57. FORT JESUP, LOUISIANA.— Southwest of Nachitocbes, Louisiana, on a ridge midway between the Red and Sabine rivers, twenty-five miles distant from each. The country is rolling, but not hilly. Winds from the Gulf are felt through the summer.

58. FORT TOWSON, INDIAN TERRITORY.—Near Red river, six miles distant from it and from the Kiamichi, a branch entering it from the north. In part surrounded by hilly and rolling country, and on the south by open marshes or prairies.

59. FORT WASHITA, INDIAN TERRITORY—Near the Washita river, thirty miles from its entrance into Red river. The location is a mile and a half east of the Washita, one hundred and fifty feet above it, and on the border of high open prairies.

60. FORT SMITH, ARKANSAS—At the month of Poteau river, on the south bank of the Arkansas, and at the western limit of Missouri. Southward the country is broken and lnlly, but the locality is riot confined.

61. FORT GIBSON, INDIAN TERRITORY.—On the east bank of the Neosho or Grand river, three miles from its junction with the Arkansas. The locality is low, surrounded by bottom land on one side, and more elevated prairie on others, with hills in the distance.

62. FORT SCOTT, KANSAS. —Near the Marmiton river, four miles from the western boundary of Missouri, on the military road from Fort Leavenworth to Fort Gibson. The locality is a high table prairie, which, at the south of the Marmiton, divides the tributaries of the Missouri from those of the Arkansas. Exposure particularly open and unconfined.

63. JEFFERSON BARRACKS, MISSOURI.—On the west bank of the Mississippi, ten miles below St. Louis. The locality is on a bluff 100 feet above the river, with a somewhat hilly back-ground. Exposure not open westward, but affected by the river depression. Position derived from that of St. Louis. Altitude from Nicollet, for the surface of the Mississippi.

64. ST. LOUIS ARSENAL, MISSOURI.—On the west bank of the Mississippi, three miles below the city of St. Louis. The locality is on the immediate bank of the river, much confined in regard to exposure, and affected by local extremes.

65. NEWPORT BARRACKS, KENTUCKY. --—At Newport, on the south bank of the Ohio river, opposite Cincinnati. The exposure is generally open.

66. DETROIT BARRACKS, MICHIGAN.—At Detroit, within the city limits. The locality has been changed at times, always retaining an open inland exposure.

67. DEARBORNVILLE ARSENAL, MICHIGAN.—Near De9.roit, on the river Rouge, about ten miles west of the city. Country low and fiat.

68. FORT GRATIOT, MICHIGAN.—At the southern extremity of Lake Huron, west bank of St. Clair river. Exposure generally open, and over an undulating forest country, without hills.

69. FORT MACKINAC, MICHIGAN.---—Island of Mackinac, in the straits connecting Lakes Huron and Michigan. The fort is on an abrupt elevation, 150 feet above the lake, with a hundred feet or snore of greater elevation in a hill north of it. Exposure particularly open, except to the north.

70. FORT BRADY, MICHIGAN—At the outlet of Lake Superior, Sault St. Marie, on the south side of the river. It is fifteen miles from the open lake, on a shore but little elevated above the river, and with an open exposure.

71. FORT WILKINS, MICHIGAN—At Copper Harbor, Keewenaw Point, south shore of Lake Superior. The precise location and exposure are not known.

72. FORT HOWARD, WISCONSIN.—At Green bay, on the west side of Fox river, at its mouth. Locality but slightly elevated, with a low, marshy inland exposure.

73. FORT ATKINSON, WISCONSIN.—On Rock river, about forty miles west of MILWAUKIE.

74. FORT DEARBORN, ILLINOIS.—At Chicago, on the immediate bank of Chicago river, and very near the shore of Lake Michigan. Entirely level and open prairie mad lake exposure.

75. FORT WINNEBAGO, WISCONSIN. On the east bank of Fox river, (tributary to Green bay,) central Wisconsin. District low, level, marshy, and open.

76. FORT CRAWFORD, WISCONSIN.—At Prairie du Chien, on the east bank of the Mississippi, two miles above the mouth of the Wisconsin river. Exposure of the locality open, with bluffs at two or three miles distance.

77. FORT ARMSTRONG, ILLINOIS.—On Rock island, in the Mississippi river, four miles above the mouth of Rook river.

78. FORT ATKINSON, IOWA—On Turkey river, northwest of Dubuque, and near fifty miles westward from the Mississippi at the nearest point. Locality not known.

79. FORT RIPLEY, (GAINES,) MINNESOTA.—On the west bank of the Mississippi, six miles south of the mouth of Crow-wing river. Exposure generally level and open, with gradual elevations in the back-ground.

80. FORT SNELLING, MINNESOTA.—At the junction of the St. Peter’s with the Mississippi river, on the enclosed angle. The position is locally elevated, but it has a back-ground of bluffs protecting it on the northwest.

81. FORT RIDGLEY , MINNESOTA.—At the head of navigation of the St. Peter’s river, near seventy miles southwest of Fort Snelling.

82. FORT DODGE, (CLARKE,) IOWA.—On the upper portion of the Des Moines river, at the junction of Lizard fork. Exposure generally open, surrounded by extensive prairies.

83. FORT DES MOINES, IOWA.—On the Des Moines river, central Iowa. Exposure generally open.

84. FORT CROGHAN, IOWA.—On the east bank of the Mississippi, near twenty miles below Council Bluffs. High bluffs are at some distance from the river, three to six miles, but the exposure is generally Open.

85. COUNCIL BLUFFS, NEBRASKA.— On the west side of the Missouri river, thirty miles above the mouth of the Platte. The bluffs are much exposed toward all points, while the immediate valley of the river is confined and local.

86. FORT LEAVENWORTH, KANSAS.— On the west bank of the Missouri, twenty miles above the mouth of Kansas river. The locality is elevated and the exposure particularly open.

87. FORT RILEY, KANSAS—On the angle formed by the junction of Republican fork (Or Pawnee river) and Kansas river. Surrounded by open plains.

88. FORT KEARNY, NEBRASKA—On the south bank of Platte river, midway between the Mississippi and the Rocky mountains. The valley of the Platte is broad, and the bluffs are remote and of moderate elevation.

89. FORT LARAMIE, NEBRASKA—AL the junction of the Laramie river with the north fork of the Platte. Locality elevated, and exposure open, over naked plains and bluffs.

90. FORT ATKINSON, KANSAS.—Near the crossing of the Arkansas river, Santa F route, twenty-six miles below the point so designated. The bluffs are low, and the country on all sides unbroken prairie, without timber even on the river bottom.

91. FORT ARBUCKLE, INDIAN TERRITORY.—Near the Washita river, “four miles southward at the nearest point, and seventy-six miles north of west of the junction of this with Red river.’‘ The country generally open, though woody at the post.

92. FORT WORTH, TEXAS—On the west fork of the Trinity river, Upper Texas. The locality is a high, open prairie, fully exposed, and intermediate between the two belts of woodland called the Cross Timbers. Elevation above the stream 150 feet.

93. Four GRAHAM, TEXAS,—On the east bank of the Brazos, Jose Maria village. The valley of the Brazos, though wide, is bounded by bluff banks, which give a somewhat local character to the exposure.

94. FORT BELKNAP, TEXAS.—” On the north bank of the Red fork of the Brazos, 110 miles northwest of Fort Graham. The locality is on the edge of a rolling prairie extending back many miles, south of the river there are hills.

95. POST PHANTOM HILL, TEXAS—Clear fork of Brazos river. This post is about seventy-five miles southwest of Fort Belknap, in a similarly high and open country.

96. FORT CHADBOURNE, TEXAS—On Oak creek, a tributary of the Colorado river from the north. The surrounding country is hilly and mountainous, but the particular features of the locality are not known.

97. CAMP J. E. JOHNSTON, TEXAS. —On the Conchos river, a branch of the Colorado from the south, near forty miles southwest of Fort Chadbourne. The locality is in a valley, five miles wide, surrounded by hills and mountains in the distance.

98. FORT GATES, TEXAS.—On the Rio Leon, a tributary of the Brazos river, fifty-five miles southwest of Fort Graham. Tue locality is in a valley, with much wooded country in the vicinity.

99. Font CROGHAN, TEXAS.—On a small tributary of the Colorado, near ten miles from that river, and in a somewhat sheltered valley.

100. FORT MARTIN SCOTT, TEXAS.—At Fredericksburg, on the Rio Pedernales, a branch of the Colorado river. It is two miles from Fredericksburg and seventy-five from San Antonio. The locality is in a valley, with hills and mountains at the west.

101. FORT McKAVETT, TEXAS.—On the San Saba river, a branch of the Colorado. The locality is on the south bank, at an elevation of 100 feet above the river, and with a generally open exposure.

102. FORT MASON, TEXAS—On the Liano river, a tributary of the Colorado. A hilly district, though not locally confined in its exposure.

103. FORT TERRETT, TEXAS,- At the source of the Rio Llano, a tributary of the Colorado. The locality is on a small plain, with a very hilly and broken country in the direction of the source of the river.

104. AUSTIN, TEXAS. —At the city of Austin, on the Colorado. The locality at which the observations were taken not known. This point is at the head of navigation of the Colorado, and differs much in altitude and climate from the chain of posts at the westward.

105. SAN ANTONIO, TEXAS—At the town of San Antonio, on Sine Antonio river. The precise position of the buildings for military occupation is not known. ‘The station compares very well with Austin, and is but little more elevated.

106. FORT EWELL, TEXAS.—On the Nueces river, at its southern bend. The country a low and generally arid plain.

107. FORT MERRILL, TEXAS.—On the Nueces river, midway between Fort Ewell and Corpus Christi. The country a low arid plain.

108. CORPUS CHRISTI, TEXAS.—At the head of Corpus Christi bay. The exposure to the Gulf of Mexico is somewhat broken by the distance and the islands separating the coast bays from the Gulf.

109. FORT BROWN, TEXAS.—At Brownsville, opposite Matamoras, and on the north side of the Rio Grande, about twenty miles from the coast of the Gulf.

110. RINGGOLD BARRACKS, TEXAS.—Near the town of Rio Grande, and nearly opposite Camargo, Mexico, on the Rio Grande, sixty miles above Fort Brown. The locality is on the low banks of the river, with a level back-ground.

111. FORT MCINTOSH, TEXAS-----At Laredo, valley of the Rio Grande, on a sandy plain, fifty feet above the river, two miles in width, and with a moderately hilly back -ground. Exposure free.

112. FORT DUNCAN, TEXAS.—-At Eagle Pass of the Rio Grande, osi a dry elevated plateau, much above the river bed. The locality is overlooked by a range of sand-lulls of moderate elevation.

113. FORT INGE, TEXAS.--On the Leona river, forty-five miles northeast of Fort Duncan. The district is moderately hilly and generally wooded.

114. FORT LINCOLN, TEXAS. ---On the Rio Scco, a branch of Nueces river, fifty-five miles west of San Antonio, The district is quite open and arid, and the locality elevated, with free exposure south and east, and some protecting hills at the northwest.

115. FORT CLARK, TEXAS—-On the Las Moras, a small tributary of the Rio Grande, and about thirty miles north of Fort Duncan. At the west bank of the river, on a local elevation of fifty feet above it. Exposure free, and the vicinity wooded.

116. FORT DAVIS, TEXAS.—In the mountains between the Pecos river and I’ll Paso, near Wild Rose Pass, at the sources of the Limpia river. The location of the post is in a deep canon of the mountains, selected for the purpose of protection against the severity of use winters.

117. FORT BLISS, TEXAS.—-Nearly opposite El Paso, on the north bank of the Rio Grande. The locality is in the immediate river valley, opening southward. Table lands border the river here.

118. FORT FILLMORE, New MEXICO. —Near Mesilla, on the east side of the Rio Grande, near forty miles above El Paso. The locality is a wide valley, with high mountains at ten to fifteen miles distance eastward.

119. DONA ANA, New MEXICO—-In the Rio Grande valley, near fifty miles above El Paso, and seven miles below the terminus of tim Jornada del Muerto. The locality is a wide valley, with high protecting mountains several miles distance.

120. FORT THORN, New MEXICO-- In the valley of the Rio Grande, and opposite the centre of the Jornada, sixty miles below Fort Conrad. The location is at Santa Barbara, elevated fifty feet above the river border, and with back-ground of high mountains west and north.

121. FORT WEBSTER, NEW MEXICO.—At the Copper Mutes, near tie soirees of tie Rio Mimbres and of the GILA Sierra Madre. In a canon among abrupt mountains.

122. FORT CONRAD, NEW MEXICO—--On the west lank of the Rio Grande, near Valverde, and near one hundred send fifty miles above El Paso. The locality is on a gravelly mesa, half a mile west of the river, which rises by successive steps into a rough and high range of mountains. No immediate protection.

123. FORT CRAIG NEW MEXICO.- -At the northern terminus of the Jornada del Muerto, Rio Grande valley. The post is nine miles below Fort Conrad, southward, and on the river. high mountains approach very near at the west.

124. Socorro, New Mexico. On the west bank of the Rio Grande, in a recess of hills and abrupt mountains of great elevation, which nearly surround it, and render its exposure confined and local.

125. ALBUQUERQUE, NEW MEXICO. At the town of Albuquerque, east bank of the Rio Grande. The valley is here more open, and time mountains less abrupt, than at Socorro.

126. CEBOLLETA, (LACUNA,) NEW MEXICO —At the sources of a branch of the Puerco river, west of the Rio Grande and southwest of Santa F. At Cebolleta the post was in a narrow valley or glen, facing eastward, with a very defective and local exposure.

127. ABIQUIU , NEW MEXICO—On the Rio de Chama, a tributary of the Rio Grande from the west, northwest of Santa Ed. The locality is a narrow valley in the vicinity of very high mountains.

128. SANTA FE, NEW MEXICO—On an elevated plateau, near forty miles eastward of the Rio Grande. The local exposure is very free and open, but lofty mountain ranges enclose the plateaus and the immediate valley of the river.

128. LAS VEGAS, NEW MEXICO—Near fifty miles eastward from Santa Fe, on the sources of Pecos river, and at the border of the Great Plains. The locality is much confined, and influenced by high mountains at the northwest and northeast, but it opens freely southeastward over the high plains of upper Texas.

129. FORT UNION, NEW MEXICO.—Northeastward from Santa Ed about fifty miles, on the Moro river, a branch of the Canadian. Locality in a mountainous region, opening eastward to the Great Plains.

130. RAYADO, NEW MEXICO—In a mountain valley, near the Cimarron river, a branch of the Canadian from the west. Locality mountainous.

131. TAOS, NEW MEXICO.—At the town of Taos, north of Santa Fe, an elevated plateau, near a tributary of the Rio Grande from the east. Exposure generally open, similar to Santa Ed in the position of adjacent mountains.

132. CANTONMENT BURGWIN, NEW MEXICO.—Near the Rio Grande, nine miles northward from Taos. A rough mountainous district. Local features not known.

133. FORT MASSACHUSETTS, NEW MEXICO. -——In a sheltered valley on Utah creek, opening into the great valley of San Luis. Lofty mountains rise abruptly on the east, and surround San Luis valley on all sides.

134. FORT DEFIANCE, NEW MEXICO.—In a greatly elevated district of mesas and mountains, west of the principal chain of the Sierra Madre, and near the sources of the Rio de Chelly, a tributary of the Colorado of California. The locality is a narrow canada, affected by local influences, with high mountains northward.

135. FORT YUMA, CALIFORNIA—On the west bank of the Great Colorado, eighty miles from the head of the Gulf of California. The locality is a rocky bluff, seventy-five feet above the river, with sand-hills and rocky bluffs bordering the wide valley, and connecting with an immense sand desert on the west.

136. SAN DIEGO, CALIFORNIA Near the town of San Diego, at the head of a valley six miles distant from the Old Presidio, northeast, and eight miles from the sea-shore. The valley opens upon the plain extending to the town and shore hills, of 250 feet elevation, bordering the valley and a range of mountains lying about fifteen miles.

137. POST RANCHO DEL CHINO, CALIFORNIA .—In a wide valley near the Rio Santa Ana, thirty-five miles from the coast, and one hundred and twenty miles north of San Diego, the position is inland, but without peculiar local features.

138. SAN LUIS REY, CALIFORNIA ——At a town of that name, near forty miles northwest of San Diego. The locality is in a wide valley opening to the sea, and but four miles from it.

139. POST RANCHO DE JURUPA, CALIFORNIA—In the valley of the Rio Santa Ann, eighteen miles northeast of Del Chino, The locality is elevated, in a valley three to four miles wide, with rough hills bordering it.

140. FORT TEJON, CALIF0RNIA..-—At the head of the San Joaquin valley, in a deep narrow valley opening westward.

142. FORT MILLER, CALIFORNIA.— On the San Joaquin river, at the foot-hills of the Sierra Nevada, and about midway in the entire length of the San Joaquin valley. The locality has the peculiar features of this deep valley, several hundred miles in length, and about fifty in width, and shut in by lofty mountain ranges both from the sea and the interior.

143. MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA.—On the south shore of the bay of Monterey, near seventy miles (direct) south-southeast from San Francisco. Tue locality is a low plain, with a gentle slope in the back-ground, and a very full exposure to the sea. The mountains are too far distant to influence the position.

144. SAN FRANCISCO, CALIFORNIA—At Presidio San Francisco, near the city. The locality is an elevated point, three miles west of the city towards the coast, and much more directly exposed to the sea. The entrance to San Francisco bay bounds the point on the north.

145. SONORA, CALIFORNIA.— On a small stream entering into San Pablo bay, near forty miles north of San Francisco. The locality is partially protected from the sea exposure by spurs of the coast range of mountains, and its character in this respect is intermediate between the posts of the coast and those of the interior of California.

146. BENICIA, CAL1FORNIA.—At the town of Benicia, entrance to Suisun bay, thirty miles northeast of San Francisco, The locality is one mile eastward from the town, with an exposure over water surface and low plains in all directions except north and northwest, where there are protecting hills. The nearest point on the Pacific coast is southwest thirty-five miles; in a right line west it is distant fifty miles.

147. CAMP ANDERSON, CAL1FORNIA.—At Sutter City, near Sacramento, 120 miles northeast from San Francisco. The exposure is locally over low plains, with flinch water surface, in the wide interior valley of Sacramento.

148. CAMP FAR WEST, CALIFORNIA.— On Bear creek, a tributary of Feather river, near fifteen miles from its mouth and from the town of Marysville, and thirty-five miles north-northeast from Sacramento. The locality is a confined valley at the base of the foot-hills of the Sierra Nevada, on the east side of the great Sacramento valley.

149. FORT READING, CALIFORNIA—On a small tributary of Sacramento river, one and a half miles from that river, and near five miles from the town of Trinidad. The locality is a confined valley, with dry table-lands in the immediate vicinity. It is near the upper extremity of Sacramento valley, and the mountain ranges are from twenty to forty miles distant at either side.

150. FORT HUMBOLDT, CALIFORNIA—Near the town of Bucksport, Humboldt bay, coast of California. The locality is a plateau of slight elevation fronting the bay and fully open to the Pacific. From the coast, eastward two miles.

151. FORT JONES, CALIFORNIA—At Scott’s valley, on a small tributary of Klamath river, near one hundred miles from the head of Sacramento valley, and an equal distance in a direct line from the Pacific coast, The locality is not closely confined, though with high mountains—the Siskiou and Salmon ranges — on the south and east.

152. PORT ORFORD, OREGON—At Port Orford, near ten miles southward from Cape Blanco or Orford. The locality is at the head of a bay (Tichenor bay or Ewing Harbor) opening southward, and the exposure very direct to the Pacific.

153. FORT LANE, OREGON—Near Jacksonville, Rogue river, in a large valley opening westward, with high mountain ranges in the vicinity.

154. ASTORIA, OREGON.—At the town of Astoria, south bank of the Columbia river, near ten miles from the coast of the Pacific. The locality has a free exposure over water surface and low plains to the sea, with rough hills at the south and east.

155. FORT VANCOUVER, COLUMBIA BARRACKS, OREGON.—On the north bank of the Columbia river, eighty miles in a direct line from the Pacific at its mouth. The valley of the river opens northwestward here, and the coast range of mountains protects it from sea exposure. The Barracks and old Fort Vancouver have been occupied alternately ; the difference of position is unimportant. The plain is low and wide, with much water surface in the vicinity.

156. FORT DALLES, OREGON—At the passage of the Columbia river through the eastern portions of the Cascade range of mountains. The locality is on the south bank of the river, half a mile from it, and elevated about one hundred feet. The exposure is over bare plateaux, with the Cascade range protecting the district at the west.

157. FORT STEILACOOM, WASHINGTON Territory.—At Steilacoom, the southern extremity of Puget’ sound. The locality is one mile east from the shore of the sound, with open plains and much water surface in the vicinity. The Cascade and coast ranges of mountains enclose the area of the sound and plains.

158. CANTONMENT LORING, OREGON--Near Fort hall, upper portion of Lewis’ Fork of Columbia. The post is about equidistant from Great Salt Lake and the South Pass, north and west respectively. The locality is on the east bank of the river, five miles above Fort Hall, in a low valley three to five miles wide. The principal mountains are too far distant to affect the position locally.

159. GREAT SALT LAKE, UTAH.—On a plain near ten miles south of the lake. A chain of mountains is quite near at the east, but in other directions the exposure is open and free.

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