Monday, December 22, 2008

Guides Of History.

The Guide was a very important person for with out a guide, many wagon train, and Army would have gotten lost. The guides job was a dangers one for little pay, sometimes he would have to fight Indians, other bad man and in the time of war, if he was caught in the wrong place he could be charged as a spy. There were famous guide and not so famous, which either it don’t made the job no less dangers. The guides here may not have been famous but there are some of his ancestors looking for him and hoping to add his name to their family history.

Note. The following information comes from the many departments of the Library of Congress.

Journals of the Continental Congress, 1774-1789FRIDAY, APRIL 15, 1785.

John Franklin was engaged as a guide at £50 Pennsylvania currency per month, that he was wounded at Chemung on the 13th. August following which rendered him unable to help himself until the 4th. day of April 1780 and that he has received pay to the 10th. of October 1779 only. They therefore submit the following resolve.
Whereas it appears that John Franklin who served as a guide on the Indian expedition commanded by Major General Sullivan in 1779 was by a wound he received in the service rendered incapable of assisting or supporting himself from the 13th. day of August 1779 to the 4th. day of April following, and that his pay as a guide ceased on the 10th. day of October 1779.
Journal of the House of Representatives of the United States, 1789-1793THURSDAY, FEBRUARY 17, 1791.

A petition of John Nicholson was presented to the House and read, praying compensation for services rendered to the United States, during the late war, as an Indian interpreter and guide.
Journal of the House of Representatives of the United States, 1789-1793WEDNESDAY, MARCH 3, 1790.

The petition of Jehoiakim M'Toksin, reported a state of facts, together with a resolve, which was twice read, and agreed to by the House, as followeth: Resolved by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That there be paid out of the public Treasury unto Jehoakim M'Toksin one hundred and twenty dollars, in full compensation for his services as an interpreter and guide in the expedition commanded by Major General Sullivan, in the year one thousand seven hundred and seventy-nine.
Journal of the House of Representatives of the United States, 1813-1815THURSDAY, JUNE 3, 1813.

A petition of Thompson Maxwell, of Ohio, praying compensation for services rendered as a guide in the army lately commanded by General Hull, and for losses occasioned by the surrender of that army to the enemy.
Journal of the House of Representatives of the United States, 1861-1862THURSDAY, April 17, 1862.

The petition of citizens of Jefferson county, Kentucky, asking that a pension be allowed to the father of Spencer R. Smith, who died in the west while acting as guide to the army.
Note. That any person, being an inhabitant of any of these states, who shall act as a guide or pilot by land or water for the enemy, or shall give or send intelligence to them, or in any manner furnish them with supplies of provisions, money, cloathing, arms; forage, fuel, or any kind of stores, be considered and treated as an enemy and traitor to these United States; and that General Washington be empowered to order such person taken within thirty miles of any city, town or place in the states of Pennsylvania, Jersey and Delaware, which is, or may be in the possession of any of the enemy's forces, to be tried by a court martial, and such courts martial are hereby authorized to sentence any such persons convicted before them of any of the offences aforesaid, to suffer death or such other punishment as to them shall seem meet.

Civil War.

Prisoner of War, George A. Lawrence, was a British subject and was arrested at Greenland Va. In 1863, said he came through the Alleghany Mountains. His guide was E. M. Shipley.

Report of Lieutenant Richard A. Osmer, Second California Cavalry.
July 7, 1865.

Mr. Fairbanks acted as his guide.

Numbers 2. Reports of Colonel Edward M. McCook, Second Indiana Cavalry, commanding First Cavalry Division.


A Mr. Inman was the guide.

Prisoner of War.

Thomas H. Duke. - Born in September; raised there, and worked in the mill of Alexander Boteter until July, 1860; then went to Antietam Mills, in Maryland. Staid there till Christmas, 1860; then returend to Shepherdstown and worked for two months for William Sherrard; then went back to Antietam Mills and worked off and on there until haverst; then went back to Antietam and worked until he came over to see him mother, when he was arrested. Says he got there on Thursday and was taken on Friday, and taken to Colonel Ashby's camp. This boy is strongly suspected to have guided the party that seized Captain Alexander Boteler when he (Captain Boteler) was taken by the Massachusetts men. Duke acknoweldges he came over that might and returned the next morning. He denies all connection with the affair, and says the party was led by one Kezer, a deserter. He is also suspected to have come over when he was taken as guide to a party intending to attack Colonel Ashby's camp. He admits he was with the party, and escapted them by promising to return; but says he gave information to prevent Ashby's surprise. Says he was withe the some party when they crossed the river some nights before; that he was compelled to go with them but pretended he did not know the road and they turned back. I do not like this boy's manner, and strongly suspect him to be in complicity with the enemy in these two affairs. He is near twenty-one years old. Is willing to take the oath of allegiance and is desirous to enlist. I think the best disposition that can be made of him is to permit him to enlist provided he is sent to the South.

Prisoner of War.


CHARGE: Lurking or acting as a spy.

Specification. -In this, that the said Jose Maria Rivas did during the winter of 1861-62 and the spring of 1862 act as spy against the Federal troops in New Mexico-first for Colonel Baylor, then for General Sibley, and until caught as a spy and guide for Captain Coopwood, all of the Confederate forces. And the said Rivas did during the greater part of the time above mentioned continue to act as a spy and guide adversely to the Federal Government, to which he owed allegiance.

Prisoner of War.

Tom Heath.

SIR: I have examined the papers in the case of one Tom Heath, a freeman of color, who was imprisoned in one of the military jails of this city on the 5th instant. Heath is a resident of Goochland County and is charged by a gentleman of the highest respectability and veracity with having acted as a guide to the enemy during the recent raid of General Kilpatrick and Colonel Dahlgren through Goochland. The only witness I learn against the accused is a son of Mr. S. D. Fisher, whose testimony, in the absence of other witnesses, would not be sufficient proof of the overt act of treason, although there is no doubt of Heath having adhered to the enemy, giving them aid and comfort. His offense is one of so grave a character that I regret to say he cannot, I fear, be successfully prosecuted for treason. The act of Congress of the 15th of February, 1864, providing for the suspension of the writ of habeas corpus in certain cases, will enable the Secretary of War to inflict the punishment of imprisonment upon the accused. He has clearly been guilty of the crime of communicating intelligence to the enemy, giving him aid and comfort and holding intercourse with the enemy without necessity and without the permission of the Confederate States, and he may therefore be imprisoned and denied all recourse to the writ of habeas corpus. As hard labor for the benefit of the Confederate States should be superadded to the punishment of imprisonment, I have no recommend the immediate reference of the papers in this case to Judge Campbell, the Assistant Secretary of War, who will issue the necessary orders for the imprisonment of Heath. The crime with which he is charged is one of such frequent occurrence that an example should be made of Heath. It is a matter of notoriety in the sections of the Confederacy where raids are frequent that the guides of the enemy are nearly always free negroes and slaves.

Prisoner of War.

Claggett Fitzhugh.

Said Fitzhugh is now held in the Old Capitol Prison as a citizen and political prisoner, having been arrested in September, 1862, for aiding and abetting the enemy, acting as guide to the rebel General Longstreet, &c. He, however, claims to be treated as a prisoner of war, asserts that when captured he had been regularly enlisted in the rebel service, and as such must have been included in the exchange of prisoners heretofore carried out between the tow armies. It is admitted that if be was an enlisted man at the time of his capture ha has been exchanged and should be set at liberty.

There is no evidence whatever in the case, beyond his own assertion, that Fitzhugh was ever enlisted in the rebel service as soldier or otherwise. On the contrary the circumstances detailed in the papers all go to show that the was, when arrested, acting in the character of a traitorous and disloyal citizen, and as such giving aid and comfort to the enemy. It appears that he resided at Mont Alto, Franklin county, Pa., and had held for years a responsible position as clerk and deputy manager of the iron-works at that place; that he had made himself thoroughly acquainted in the course of his business with the roads in Western Maryland and on the frontier of Pennsylvania; that he joined the enemy upon their invasion of the latter State on the 13th of September, and was captured the next day; that when captured he was mounted and armed, and acting not in the capacity of a soldier, but as guide to the ammunition train of General Longstreet's command. It is not probable that an old resident of that region occupying a respectable and responsible position in society would leave his home and his business for the purpose of enlisting as a rebel soldier. It is much more probable that he joined the enemy for the purpose of assisting them with the knowledge and information which he possessed as a citizen and as a man of intelligence and influence in the neighborhood, and the occu[pation in which he was engaged when captured was precisely such as his previous residence and local knowledge had best fitted him for.

It appears that his loyalty had been ling suspected among his fellow citizens. Under the circumstances it is not deemed that the prisoner's own statement should be held sufficient to settle his status, and in accordance with the suggestions in the within letters* it is recommended that the prisoners bee returned to the authorities of Franklin County to be prosecuted under the act of Congress of July 17, 1862, Chapter CXCV, or such other act as the evidence available in the case may indicate as more directly applicable to his offense. In view of the known disloyalty of Fitzhugh and his efficiency as a guide it is for the President to determine whether, in case he be remanded to the civil authority during the present invasion of Pennsylvania by the rebels, it will not be expedient to suspend in his case the privilege of the writ of habeas corpus.

Prisoners of War.

Guides James Hall and Jesse Turner, and family members.

You have as I am informed in your military service as guides and spies two free negroes, James Hall and Jesse Turner. Their families were residing on the north side of White River and their houses, as I was officially informed a few days since by my scouts, were a rendezvous for your troops engaged in military operations in this direction. Necessity required that I should break up immediately this place of aid, comfort and information to your scouts. Consequently I ordered all the members of both families to be removed to the rear of my lines. Their names are as follows: Rachel Turner, sister of James Hall, age 55, and her sons, Joel, age 14, and James, age 11; Cynthia Turner, wife of Jesse Turner, age 28, and her children, Love, age 6, Salina, age 4, and Sarah, age 2. I do not retain these people as prisoners of war. No guards are placed over them and they are supplied with subsistence from my commissary department. I am anxious that they should be transferred within your lines, with the proviso that they shall not be reinstated in the former neighborhood except by force of arms. Allow me most respectfully to suggest that in line of proposed to be sent within your lines you restore tome as many slaves who have been forcibly taken from their masters within the bounds of this State and from the vicinity in which these free negroes resides. I have no authority from my Government to commence this negro exchange, but from the recent proclamation of your President I would respectfully suggest that you would be perfectly justified in acting on my proposition. Whether you accede to my proposition of restoring slaves or not, still if you desire these free negroes within your lines you will please signify it and I will send them under escort to any place you may designate.

Elijah Grossland, acting guide.

Statement of Lieutenant Fancis Reichert, battalion adjutant, Thirteenth Missouri State Militia.

Question. What if anything do you know of the killing of prisoners at or near this post in the month of August?

Answer. Yes. I killed two and wounded one when out in command of sixteen men. One of them was killed by my men last Monday and the other last Tuesday. One was Elijah Grossland. He lived in Heath's Hollow. The other men were James and Washington Lemons, brothers. One of them was killed and the other wounded, all living in Heath's Hollow. The circumstances were these: We found a camp of forty rebels under command of Captain Kerry. They all ran and we followed, trying to shoot the whole of them, but only succeeded in hitting a few, killing 2, wounding 1, and taking 1 prisoner. I took Grossland at Adam's house. I had been following Grossland ten miles. When I found him I inquired if he had any arms, and both he and Adams denied having any at all, but upon making a search a revolver with three shots in it was found on the person of Grossland and musket under the roof of the house. I put him under guard, thinking I wound hang or shoot him right there because I found him under arms and he denied being armed, but I afterwards thought I would use him for a guide. I kept him for a guide from about the middle of the day till about 11 p. m. of the same day. He had given me a list of about forty rebels in the vicinity, and when I wanted him to tell me where their camp was he refused to tell me and said that I must hunt it myself and that he would tell no Dutchman. My sergeant told him then that he wound have to tell or be killed, and then he tried to get away in the bushes and one of my men shot him. This was on Monday. On Tuesday we found the Lemons boys, Washington and Jim. They both ran. One of them was wounded in the back and the other lay down behind a long and begged for quarter and I took him prisoner and sent him to camp with two privates. Before they got to camp he tried to get away and they shot him. Grossland used to belong to Coleman's rebel regiment.

Wheeling, Va., February 25, 1862.
Honorable E. M. STANTON,
Secretary of War, Washington, D. C.

Guide Samuel Clark.

SIR: Samuel Clark, of Harrison County, Va., was engaged in assisting the quartermaster of General Morris in getting forage and as a guide in Randolph County, and on the 31st day of July, 1861, was taken prisoners by the Confederate at Big Springs and taken to Huntersville, thence to Richmond and afterward as is reported to New Orleans. I doubt, however, his removal to the latter city, Mr. Clark was not regularly enrolled in any company. He is a heavy-built man, dark complexion, arching eyebrows, black whiskers and a true and valuable man.

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