Tuesday, September 22, 2009
Photo can be enlarged by pushing on it.
Washington, District of Columbia. Ambulance train at Harewood Hospital.
These ambulances may not look like much to us, but to the wounded soldier on the battle field they were a god send and a life saver to many a Union and confederate soldier a like.
The Ambulance Corps Bill passed the House of Congress on February 4, 1863, but would not pass the full Congress till March of 1864, The bill was then called, Uniform System of Ambulances. Even before this Bill, the headquarters of the Army of the Potomac sent out the regulations for the organization of a Ambulance Corps, on August 2, 1862.
There had been little planing on how to move the wounded at the start of the war in 1861, but by the end of December of 1862, every State in the Union were calling for some kind of ambulance service and even the Southern States were working on a Ambulance Corps of some kind. In the wars before the civil war the wounded would be carried off the battle field by any means possible, it could have been a two wheel cart or a flat wagon a stretcher and even by hand. There were those who would try to find better ways to carry the wounded off the battle field. There was one a Dr. Israel Moses, who in 1858, had made a new improved ambulance and was trying to get the army to take it's adoption.
I made this page to help you researchers who may hve had a ancestor in the Ambulance Corps, so you could understand what he went throught, or maybe your just interested and want to know more about this Cops. Well I can tell you this was a dangers duty, ambulance drivers would be shot off their sets, Cannon balls would pass through the ambulance and the stretcher carriers would be shot while crossing the battle fields. These men had no defense as they were not given guns they were there for humanitarian reasons and not to fight. However those who had they own personal side arms or rifles were allowed to carry them for their defense.
By reading the following reports you will learn many interesting thing about the Ambulance Corps, what some of their duty’s were and how they lived on the march and how some bravely died. For those of you who may be interested in how this corps was put together and it’s organization will find this information following the reports
Numbers 125. Report of Capt, William F. Drum, Second U. S. Infantry, Chief Ambulance Officer, of operations August 18-21.
HEADQUARTERS FIFTH ARMY CORPS,
Weldon Railroad, September 1, 1864.
SIR: I have the honor to submit the following, report of operations of the ambulance corps, Fifth Army Corps, during the recent occupation of the Weldon railroad:
At 4 a. m. August 18 the corps commenced its movement toward the railroad, which it was to occupy and hold. Eighty ambulances (one-half of the whole train) and one medicine wagon to each division were ordered to accompany the command, following in its rear. The remainder of the ambulances, with the heavy portion of the hospital and ambulance train, were left at the old ambulance park near army headquarters, under charge of a commissioned officer. Twenty-five hospital-tent flies were carried in the ambulances to be used as shelter for the wounded. The command reached the railroad about 10 a. m., after driving in and capturing a few of the enemy's cavalry pickets, and immediately commenced destroying the track. The point occupied by the corps is about five miles south of Petersburg, four north of Reams' Station, and six southwest from the Avery house. The enemy soon commenced making demonstrations from the direction of Petersburg, and later in the day made an attack in force.
On the march to this point quite a number of men were so much affected by the heat as to be unfit for duty, and before the action commenced they were sent to the rear in ambulances. Orders were at the same time given to re-establish the hospitals on the old ground (the old hospitals having been packed up on the night of the 17th), and for the remainder of the ambulances to come to the front. During the action in the afternoon a few of the ambulances at a time were taken to a convenient point, as near the line of battle as possible, to which point the wounded were carried on stretchers. They were then conveyed in ambulances a half or three-fourths of a mile to the various depots for wounded established by the surgeons.
After the action was over, and as soon as the wounded were dressed, they were sent to the rear to the hospitals. There not being a sufficient number of ambulances at the front to convey all the wounded, a few were left at the field depots under the tent flies till the next morning. Owing to the long distance back to the hospital and ambulance park, the ambulances sent back with sick and those ordered up did not reach the front till early on the morning of the 19th. Those sent with wounded the evening of the 18th also returned during the morning. Owing to the length of time it required to go to the hospitals and return, in consequence of the distance and soft state of the roads, the medical director of the corps ordered the hospitals to be moved up to a point on the plank road between the Jones house and the Williams house. The wounded left the day before were then sent back to the hospital.
At 3 p. m. on the 19th the enemy made an attack in strong force. The wounded of this day were carried on stretchers to the ambulances, as the day before. Our communication with the hospitals not being for a time safe, the ambulances with the wounded were parked till it was ascertained that road was safe, when they were sent back under charge of commissioned and non-commissioned officers. The last wounded brought in were started for the hospitals by midnight. Having had much rain the roads became almost impassable, even to ambulances, so that it was with great difficulty that a train of wounded could be taken through. During the morning of the 20th all of the ambulances returned to the front, and were in readiness for action.
The day, however, passed quietly. New roads were looked up to be used in case of necessity. On the morning of the 21st the enemy again made a determined assault on our lines, and were severely repulsed, leaving many of their wounded in our hands. The wounded men were carried back, as usual, on the stretchers, and after having their wounds dressed were placed in ambulances, and sent to the hospitals. The ambulances were this day under a severe artillery fire from the enemy.
During the three days' fighting the ambulances conveyed from the field of battle to the hospitals of the corps, 773 of our own wounded, 30 of other corps (Ninth), and 153 of the enemy, besides about 300 sick sent to hospital on the 18th and 19th. Owing to the condition of the roads and the distance, it was considered impracticable to send any of the Fifth Corps ambulances to City Point. Our sick and wounded were, therefore, by direction of the medical director of the army, taken from the Fifth Corps hospitals to City Point by the ambulance train of the Sixth Corps, which duty was performed promptly and cheerfully.
The large number of casualties is good evidence that the men of the ambulance corps did their duty well under fire. Great credit is, however, due the officers and men of this department for the untiring energy with which they worked day and night, in the rain and mud, in order to transport the wounded back to the hospitals as quickly as possible. It might be proper for me to state that it was not possible for the hospitals to be any nearer, it not being considered safe, and the roads being in such condition that it would have been almost impossible to have gotten the heavy hospital trains through them.
During the three day's engagement 2 sergeants were killed, 1 sergeant and 5 stretcher-men wounded, and 19 stretcher-men missing, making the total number of casualties in the ambulance corps, 27. Eight horses were also killed, and shells passed through two of the ambulances.
I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
W. F. DRUM,
Captain and Chief Ambulance Officer, Fifth Army Corps
Note. William F. Drum, was from Minnesota, on August 1. 1861, he was given his appointment as a Second Lieutenant in the Regular Army of the United States. In October of the same year he was made First Lieutenant of the 2nd., regiment of infantry, he would be in the battle of Gaines' Mill, Va., and because of his actions in battle he was given the rank of Captain by Brevet on June 27, 1862. On May 1, 1863, he was made full Captain. Because of his actions before Richmond, Virginia, December 2, 1864, he was given the rank of Major by Brevet. Then for his actions at the battle of Five Forks, Virginia, he was given the rank of lieutenant-colonel by brevet on April 1, 1865.
It should be noted here that because these reports and the Bills I had promised are very long I will only be able to give you three reports. However I will list the men who give their reports then if you decide you would like one of the reports you can write to me and I will be glad to send you one.
Important note. I have thousands of names at this site, so when asking a question about this page or any other pages at this site, please give the ( Title of the page ), for without it I may not be able to help you. My address can be found in my profile.
Numbers 24. Report of Captain John G. Pelton, Fourteenth Connecticut Infantry, Chief of Ambulances.
HEADQUARTERS SECOND ARMY CORPS,
OFFICE CHIEF OF AMBULANCES, April 20, 1865.
DOCTOR: I have the honor to submit the following report of the part taken by the Ambulance Corps, Second Army Corps, during the recent successful campaign:
On the evening of March 27  orders were received to be ready to move at 6 o'clock on the following morning, the 28th [29th], with one-half of the ambulances of each division, one medical wagon and one army wagon to each brigade, and one additional wagon to each division for the transportation of forage. The trains were ordered to follow in rear of their respective divisions. The balance of the trains of the corps were ordered to be parked near the Cummings house, all to be in charge of Lieutenant McCarthy, of the First Division train. His instructions were to report to the chief quartermaster of the corps and accompany the general trains.
On the morning of the 28th [29th] the trains moved out on the Vaughan road in accordance with the orders received. Upon arriving at Humphreys' Station it was found that the corps had not as yet moved out; consequently the trains were parked in the open field near the station until the troops moved out, when it was found, at the crossing of Hatcher's Run, that it would be impracticable for the trains to follow in rear of their division, as the roads were narrow and it was not exactly known how soon the enemy would be found, and at the request of Major-General Humphreys the trains were halted and parked in an open field on the north bank of the river until the corps had crossed. The stretcher men, however, all crossed with their commands. On the 29th [30th] the trains were ordered to cross, and, in accordance with orders, parked at a place known as the "Three Chimneys," where a hospital was established. During its stay at this place all the drivers were engaged in building roads to the front.
On the evening of the 30th [29th] orders were received to send twenty ambulances to assist the Fifth Corps in removing their wounded. Lieutenant Lillibridge, of the Second Division train, was detailed to take command of the twenty-one ambulances that went to the Fifth Corps, assisted by a sergeant from each division train. Lieutenant Lillibridge reached the Fifth Corps hospital a little before daylight on the morning of the 31st [30th], and loaded his ambulances and proceeded to Humphreys' Station. After unloading the wounded he rejoined his command on the evening of the 31st [30th].
During the afternoon of the 31st Lieutenant Callanen, of the Second Division train, received orders from Doctor McParlin, medical director, Army of the Potomac, to remove the wounded of the cavalry, which were at that time in the Second Division hospital. For this purpose seventeen ambulances were sent to Humphreys' Station. In the meantime orders were given him that if he needed more ambulances to send for his reserve train, which he did. During this day the First Division was engaged with the enemy. Ambulances were sent to the front and the wounded were conveyed to the hospitals which were established near the Vaughan road. During this day twenty-four ambulances of the First Division were sent to Warren's Station with wounded, under the charge of Lieutenant Clark, First Division ambulance corps. Lieutenant Paxton, of the First Division train, also took ten of the First Division, nine of the Second Division, and sixteen of the Third Division loaded with wounded to Warren's Station.
April 1, Lieutenant Clark reported back with his train, which had been to the station, and from thence followed the division with nine ambulances. On this day Lieutenant Chase, of the First Division, joined the command with twenty-four ambulances, four medical wagons, and five army wagons; Lieutenant Chase having been on leave of absence. Lieutenant Paxton also joined the command with the train he had taken to Warren's Station.
April 2, the First Division was heavily engaged, and the train employed in removing the wounded to the hospital which had been established at the Moody house. Lieutenant Paxton followed the division with nine ambulances to the Sullivan house, near the South Side Railroad, and the whole night was employed in carrying wounded of the First Division from the Moody and Sullivan houses to the Boydton plank road.
April 3, Lieutenant Chase, with eight ambulances and the hospital train, joined the division at the Sullivan house and followed the troops. Lieutenant Clar, with the remaining thirty-five ambulances and ten of the Third Division loaded with wounded, left the hospital for Warren's Station. The roads being very several animals died on the march from exhaustion.
April 4, the remaining train followed in the rear of the corps, heavily laded with sick.
April 5, the trains followed the corps with sick; no wounded to take up on this day.
April 6, broke camp at daylight, and followed the troops near to Amelia Springs, where they became engaged with the enemy. The trains were immediately ordered to the Springs. The wounded of the First and Third Divisions were brought to the Springs house by the stretcher-bearers until the ambulances to the front on account of the deemed proper to send many ambulances to the front on account of the road being narrow and on each side dense woods, and in case of a retrograde movement of the troops the train would, of course, be in the way; therefore they remained at the Springs house until the troops had advanced some miles, when the First and Third Division were engaged with the enemy. The Second Division being on the extreme right and finding no enemy, the train of the Second Division was not engaged, therefore they were ordered to assist the First and Third Divisions in removing their wounded, which they did. The corps having advanced several miles, it was found that the number of ambulances present was not adequate to the demand, consequently a hospital was established for the Second and Third Divisions at the Vaughan house, which relieved the ambulances and stretcher men very materially. The corps still advanced, and at night encamped near Sailor's Creek. The trains bringing the wounded from Amelia Springs parked near corps headquarters.
On the 7th Lieutenant Clark, of the First Division train, was ordered to proceed with twenty-seven ambulances loaded with wounded to Burkeville Junction. There were also fifteen ambulances of the Second Division sent to Burkeville with wounded of the Third Division, and all of the ambulances but seven of the Third Division were sent to Burkeville with wounded. Upon arriving at High Bridge quite a number of wounded were found belonging to the Second Division. Here nine ambulances were loaded and ordered to join the train which had started for Burkeville about half an hour before; the remainder of the train followed the corps.
Upon advancing about a mile beyond the Brooks house the First Division became engaged with the enemy, as also did the Third Division. During the day a hospital was established at the Brooks house and the wounded were speedily removed to the hospital, in consideration of the number of ambulances we had to work with, the greater portion being moved by the stretcher men, who deserve great credit for their courage and endurance, this being the fourth day they had been without rations, which was not the fault of the ambulance officers or the commissary department. The supply train did not have sufficient amount of rations to issue to all detachments; therefore the ambulance corps was left to take care of itself, which it did in a very creditable manner.
April 8, having left quite a number of wounded at the Vaughan house, we were informed that the Ninth Corps ambulances were ordered to assist us in removing them, whereupon Lieutenant Crawley, of the Second Division train, was ordered to High Bridge to meet them and conduct them to the above-mentioned house. Upon his arrival at High Bridge nothing could be found of them, but after running about the country for an hour he succeeded in finding them. In the meantime all the ambulances except eleven of the corps were loaded with the wounded which were at the Brooks house and sent to Burkeville, Lieutenant Clark, First Division, in charge. On this day Lieutenant T. C. Chase, Twenty-sixth Michigan, commanding First Division ambulance train, was relieved from duty with the train on the grounds of in competency.
On the 9th the hospital train, with eleven ambulances, was ordered to follow in rear of the corps. The march this day was not severe, the trains having scarcely moved out of park before a halt was ordered, it having been announced that General R. E. Lee had surrendered the Army of Northern Virginia to Lieutenant General U. S. Grant.
On the 10th a train was made up and loaded with sick and a few wounded and went to Burkeville. Lieutenant Page, of the Second Division train, took charge, and was ordered to remain at the station until the corps arrived there.
On the 11th took up our line of march toward New Store, the ambulances and hospital train following in rear of the corps.
On the 12th marched from New Store to Farmville, trains following in the same order as the day previous.
The 13th marched from Farmville to Old Burkeville.
On the 14th selected camp for the trains, the blacksmith and carpenters being engaged in repairing the trains, which were very much in need of repairs.
There is nothing of importance to record from the 14th to the 20th, except that the trains are being put in serviceable condition as rapidly as possible, and are now ready for service.
Second Lieutenant James H. Griggs, One hundred and twenty-sixth New York Volunteers, commanding ambulances First Division; Second Lieutenant Clark, First Division; Lieutenant Callanen, One hundred and sixty-fourth New York Volunteers, commanding ambulances Second Division; Lieutenant J. R. Pancoasts, commanding ambulances Third Division; Lieutenant Painter, Third Division, and the stretchermen of the entire command deserve great credit for the untiring energy displayed in the speedy removal of the wounded.
I am, doctor, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
JOHN G. PELTON,
Captain and Chief of Ambulances, Second Army Corps.
In another report given by Captain William F. Drum, on operations to June 30, 1864, he give a list of some of his men and I will list them here.
First Lieutenant W. S. Walker, Eighteenth Massachusetts Volunteers; First Lieutenant E. H. Liscum, Twelfth U. S. Infantry; First Lieutenant J. H. Malbon, Sixteenth Maine; First Lieutenant W. T. McPhail, First Pennsylvania Volunteers Reserve Corps; Captain C. F. Hulse, One hundred and twenty-first Pennsylvania Volunteers; First Lieutenant L. H. York, One hundred and forty-sixth New York Volunteers; First Lieutenant J. B. Sinclair, Fourteenth U. S. Infantry (severely wounded); First Lieutenant J. W. Marshall, Eighty-third Pennsylvania Volunteers; Second Lieutenant B. F. Babcock, One hundred and forty-third Pennsylvania Volunteers; Second Lieutenant Joseph H. Stonebraker, First Maryland Volunteers; Second Lieutenant C. A. Garcelon, Sixteenth Maine; Second Lieutenant E. A. Campbell, Seventh Wisconsin Volunteers; Second Lieutenant A. J. Dickenson, One hundred and forty-seventh New York Volunteers; First Lieutenant W. M. Ward, Twenty- second Massachusetts; First Lieutenant H. H. Clover, Eleventh Pennsylvania Volunteers Reserve Corps; Second Lieutenant J. B. Dayton, Fifth Pennsylvania Volunteer Reserve Corps; Second Lieutenant Frank E. Jordan, Eighty-third New York Volunteers; Second Lieutenant J. E. Jacobs, Sixth New York Heavy Artillery, Sergt. Milton Powers, of the Eleventh U. S. Infantry.
Numbers 188. Report of Captain James A. Bates, Chief Ambulance Officer.
HEADQUARTERS FIFTH CORPS,
August 27, 1863.
DOCTOR: I have the honor to report the part taken by the ambulances of Fifth Corps during the fight at Gettysburg. The corps went into action about 4 p. m. July 2, accompanied by the stretcher-bearers. The ambulances were brought in rear of the corps, and as near as was thought safe, to which place the wounded were carried by the stretcher-bearers, then transported by the ambulances to the hospital, a distance of about 1 mile from the scene of action. As soon as it grew dark, the ambulances drove on to the battle-field, picking up the wounded. The ambulances kept constantly running from the hospital to the battle-field until 4 a. m. July 3, when it was found that all the wounded had been removed excepting about 6, who were beyond our pickets, in which case we were unable to get them.
I will here state that some of the attendants in charge of Lieutenant Clay, Second Division, went beyond the pickets to remove a wounded man. When in the act of removing him, they were fired on by the enemy's pickets. The number of wounded transported by eighty-one ambulances from 4 p. m. July 2 to 4 a. m. July 3 was 1, 300. Great praise is due both officers and men for their promptness in removing the wounded. The number of casualties in the ambulance corps was 1 man severely wounded in the arm. About 10 a. m. July 3, orders were received from the medical director to remove the wounded 1 mile farther to the rear, as the enemy had commenced to shell the hospital. In consequence of having to remove the wounded a second time, the eighty-one ambulances transported 2, 600 wounded men a distance of 1 1/2 miles in forty-eight hours. I will here state that the horses were in a very poor condition, having been constantly on the march for three weeks. While at Gettysburg, they had to live on half rations.
Orders were received by the chief of the First Division train to take his train to the battle-field and remove 100 wounded, which were still on the field. On reaching the battle-field, and after a thorough search, he found but 2 of the First Division. He found a number of the Third Corps, which he had put in his ambulances and transported to their corps hospital.
JAMES A. BATES,
Captain, and Chief Ambulance Officer, Fifth Corps.
Here is a list of men who also give reports.
1. Lieutenant, M. R. BALDWIN, Chief First Division Ambulance Corps, 1st A. C.
2.William F. Drum, give many reports other then the one recorded above.
3. John G. Pelton, give many reports other then the one recorded above.
4. Thomas L. Livermore, Captain, Fifth New Hampshire Infantry, Ambulance Officer,
5. Charles K. Winnie, Asst. Surg. U. S. Army, Medical Inspector.
6. Thomas A. McParlin, Surg. U. S. Army, Medical Director, Army of the Potomac.
7. *Elias J. Marsh, Asst. Surg. U. S. Army, of operations July 19-30.
8. Joseph C. Ayer, Lieutenant, Chief Ambulance Officer, First Division.
There are other reports by Ayer.
9. J. Theodore, Surg. Heard, Medical Director, Fourth Army Corps.
10. John A. Lidell, Surg. U. S. Army, Inspector of Medical and Hospital Department.
11. William S. King, Surg. U. S. Army, Medical Director.
12. John R. Pancoast, Lieutenant, One hundred and tenth Pennsylvania Infantry, Ambulance Officer.
13. Frank W. Mix, Major, Fourth Michigan Cavalry, of operations August 18-22 (Kilpatrick's raid). This report is about the Ambulances running for their lives.
14. Thomas A. McParlin, Surg. U. S. Army, Medical Director, Army of the Potomac.
15. George E. Cooper, Surg. U. S. Army, Medical Director, Department of the Cumberland.
16. Elias J. Marsh, Asst. Surg. U. S. Army, Surgeon-in-Chief, of operations July 30-December 12.
*Elias J. Marsh give a list of names in his report I will list them here.
Asst. Surg. S. Powell, First New Jersey Cavalry, died August 8, 1864, at Macon, Ga., while a prisoner of war; Asst. Surg. Z. A. Northway, Sixth Ohio Cavalry, died September 27, 1864; Asst. Surg. S. M. Murphy, Twenty-first Pennsylvania Cavalry, died November 16, 1864; Hospital Steward S. M. Potter, Sixteenth Pennsylvania Cavalry, died September 6, 1864; Asst. Surg. J. C. Stanton, Thirteenth Pennsylvania Cavalry, taken prisoner September 16, 1864; Surg. A. Wood, First Massachusetts Cavalry, discharged from service for physical disability on November 2, 1864; Asst. Surg. P. E. Sickler, Tenth New York Cavalry, discharged from service for physical disability on November 30, 1864.
Asst. Surg. S. Powell, First New Jersey Cavalry; Asst. Surg. P. E. Sickler, Tenth New York Cavalry, and Hospital Steward Bates, First Massachusetts Cavalry. Assistant Surgeon Powell died at Macon, Ga., August 8, of chronic diarrhea. Assistant Surgeon Sickler was released about September 10, and on November 30 was discharged from service on account of chronic diarrhea contracted while a prisoner.
17. John R. Pancoast, Lieutenant One hundred and tenth Pennsylvania Infantry, Ambulance Officer.
GENERAL ORDERS, HEADQUARTERS ARMY OF THE POTOMAC,
Numbers 147. Camp near Harrison's Landing, Va., August 2, 1862.
The following regulations for the organization of the ambulance corps and the management of ambulance trains are published for the information and government of all concerned. Commanders of army corps will see that they are carried into effect without delay:
Note. These regulations were revised many times.
1. The ambulance corps will be organized on the bases of a captain to each army corps as the commandant, of the ambulance corps, a first lieutenant for a division second lieutenant for a brigade and a sergeant for each regiment.
2. The allowance of ambulances and transport carts will be 1 transport cart, 1 fort horse and 2 two-horse ambulances for a regiment; 1 two-horse ambulance for each battery of artillery, and 2 two-horse ambulance for the headquarters of each army corps. Each ambulance will be provided with two stretchers.
3. The privates of the ambulance corps will consist of two men and a driver to each ambulance and one driver to each transport cart.
4. The captains is the commander of all the ambulances and transport carts in the army corps, under the direction of the medical director. He will pay special attention to the condition of the ambulances, horses, harness, &c., requiring daily inspections to be made by the commanders of division ambulances, and reports thereof to be made to him by these officers. He will make a personal inspection once a week of all the ambulances, transport carts, horses, harness, &c., whether they have been used for any other purpose than the transportation of the sick and wounded and medical sullies; reports of which will be transmitted through the medical director of the army corps to the medical director of the army every Sunday morning. He will institute a drill in his carts, instructing his men in the most easy and expeditious method of putting men in and taking them out of the ambulance, taking men from the ground and placing and carrying them on stretchers, observing that the front man steps off with the left foot and the rear man with the right, &c. He will be especially careful that the ambulance and transport carts are at all times in order, provided with attendants, drivers, horses, &c., and the kegs rinsed and filled daily with fresh water, that he may be able to move at any moment.
Previous to and in time of action ge will receive from the medical director of the army corps his orders for the distribution of the ambulances and the points to which he will carry the wounded, using the light two-horse ambulances and the points to which he will carry the wounded, using the light two-horse ambulances for bringing men from the field and the four-horse ones for carrying those already attended to farther to the rear, if the medical director considers it necessary. He will give his personal attention to the removal
of the sick and wounded from the field and to and from the hospitals, going from point to point to ascertain what may be wanted, and to see that his subordinates (for whose conduct he will be responsible attend to their duties in taking care of the wounded, treating them with gentleness and care, and removing them as quickly as possible to the places pointed out, and that the ambulances reach their destination. He will made a full and derailed report after every action and march of the operations of the ambulance corps.
5. The first lieutenant assigned to the ambulance corps of a division will have complete control, under the commander of the whole corps and the medical director, of all the ambulances, transport carts, ambulance horses, &c., in the division. He will be the acting assistant quartermaster for the division ambulance corps, and will receipt and be responsible for the property belonging to it, and be held responsible for any deficiency in ambulances, transport carts, horses, harness, &c., pertaining to the ambulance corps of the division. He will have a traveling cavalry forge, a blacksmith, and a saddler, who will be under his orders, to enable him to keep his train in order. He will receive a daily inspection report of all the ambulances, horses, &c., under his charge from the officers in charge of brigade ambulance corps, will see that the subordinates attend strictly to their duties at all times, and will inspect the corps under his charge once a week; a report of which inspection he will transmit to the commander of the ambulance corps.
6. The second lieutenant in command of the ambulances of a brigade will be under the immediate orders of the commander of the ambulance corps for the division and have superintendence of the ambulance corps for the brigade.
7. The sergeant in charge of the ambulance corps for a regiment will conduct the drills, inspection, &c., under the order of the commander of the brigade, ambulance corps, and will be particular in enforcing rigidly all orders he may receive from his superior officers. The officers and non-commissioned officers of this corps will be mounted.
8. The detail for this corps will be made with care by commanders of army corps, and no officer or man will be selected for this duty except those known to be active and efficient, and no man will be relieved except by orders from these headquarters. Should any officer or man detailed for this duty be found not fitted for it, representations of the fact will be made by the medical director of the army corps to the medical director of this army.
9. Two medical officers from the reserve corps of surgeons of each division, and a hospital steward, who will be with the medicine wagon, will be detailed by the medical director of the army corps to accompany the ambulance train when on the march, the train of each division being kept together, and will see that the sick and wounded are properly attended to. A medicine wagon will accompany each train.
10. The officers connected with the corps must be with the trains on a march, observing that no one rides in the ambulances without the authority of the medical officers, except in urgent cases; but men must not be allowed to suffer, and the officers will, when the medical officers cannot be found, use a sound discretion in this matter, and be especially careful that the men and drivers are in their proper places.
11. The place for the ambulances is in front of all wagon trains.
12. When in camp, the ambulances, transport carts, and ambulance corps will be parked with the brigade, under the commander of the corps for the brigade. They will be used, on the requisition of the regimental medical officers, transmitted to the commander of the brigade ambulance corps, for transporting the sick to various points and procuring medical supplies, and for nothing else. The noncommissioned officer in charge will always accompany the ambulances or transport carts when on this or any other duty, and he will be held responsible that they are used for none other than their legitimate purposes. Should any officer infringe upon this order regarding the uses of ambulances, &c., he will be reported by the officer offending in arrest for trial for disobedience of orders.
13. Good serviceable horses will be used for the ambulances and transport carts, and will not be taken for any other purpose except by orders from these headquarters.
14. The uniform for this corps is: For privates, a green band 2 inches broad around the cap, a green half chevron 2 inches broad on each arm above the elbow, and to be armed with revolvers; non-commissioned officers to wear the same band around the cap as a private, chevrons 1 inches broad and green, with the point toward the shoulder, on each arm above the elbow.
15. No person will be allowed to carry from the field any wounded or sick except this corps.
16. The commanders of the ambulance corps on being detailed will report without delay to the medical director at these headquarters for instructions. All division, brigade, or regimental quartermasters having any ambulances, transport carts, ambulance horses, or harness, &s., in their possession will turn them in at once to the commander of the division ambulance corps.
By command of Major-General McClellan:
WAR DEPT., ADJT. GENERAL'S OFFICE, Numbers 106.
Washington, March 16, 1864.
UNIFORM SYSTEM OF AMBULANCES.
The following act of Congress is published for the information and guidance of all concerned: PUBLIC--Numbers 22.
AN ACT to establish a uniform system of ambulances in the armies of the United States.
Be it enacted by the State and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That the medical director, or chief medical officer, of each army corps shall, under the control of the medical director of the army to which such army corps belongs, have the direction and supervision of all ambulances, medicine, and other wagons, horses, mules, harness, and other fixtures appertaining thereto, and of all officers and men who may be detailed or employed to assist him in the management thereof, in the army corps in which he may be serving.
SEC. 2. And be further enacted. That the commanding officer of each army corps shall detail officers and enlisted men for service in the ambulance corps of such army corps, upon the following basis, viz: one captain, who shall be commandant of said ambulance corps; one first lieutenant for each division in such army corps: one second lieutenant for each brigade in such army corps; one sergeant for each regiment such army corps; three privates for each ambulance, and one private for each wagon; and the officers and non-commissioned officers of the ambulance corps shall be mounted: Provided, That the officers, non-commissioned officers, and privates so detailed for each army corps shall be examined by a board of medical officers of such army corps as to their fitness for such duty; and that such as are found to be not qualified shall be rejected, and others detailed in their stead.
SEC. 3. And be it further enacted. That there shall be allowed and furnished to each army corps two-horse ambulances, upon the following basis, to wit: three to each regiment of infantry of five hundred men or more; two to each regiment of infantry of more than two hundred and less than five hundred men or more; and one to each regiment of infantry of less than two hundred men; two to each regiment of cavalry of five hundred men or more; and one to each regiment of cavalry of less than five hundred men or more; and one to each regiment of cavalry of less than five hundred men; one to each battery of artillery--to which battery of artillery it shall be permanently attached; to the headquarters of each army corps two such ambulances; and to each division train of ambulances tow army wagons; and ambulances shall be allowed and furnished to division brigades and commands not attached to any army corps upon the same basis, and each ambulance shall be provided with such number of stretchers and other appliances as shall be prescribed by the Surgeon- General; Provided, That the ambulances and wagons herein mentioned shall be furnished, so far as practicable, from the ambulances and wagons now in the service.
SEC. 4. And be it further enacted, That horse and mule litters may be adopted or authorized by the Secretary of War, in lieu of ambulances, when judged necessary, under such rules and regulations as may be prescribed by the medical direction of each army corps.
SEC. 5. And be it further enacted, That the captain shall be the commander of all the ambulances, medicine, and other wagons in the corps, under the immediate direction of the medical director, or chief medical officer, of the army corps to which the ambulance corps belongs. HE shall pay special attention to the condition of the ambulances, wagons, horses, mules, harness, and other fixtures appertaining thereto, and see that they are at all times in readiness for service; that the officers and men of the ambulance corps are properly instructed in their duties, and that their duties are performed, and that the regulations which may be prescribed by the Secretary of War, or the Surgeon-General, for the government of the ambulance corps are strictly observed by those under his command. It shall be his duty to institute a drill in his corps, instructing his men in the most easy and expeditious manner of moving the sick and wounded, and to require in all cases that the sick and wounded shall be treated with gentleness and care, and that the ambulances and wagons are at all at times provided with attendants, drivers, horses, mules, and whatever may be necessary for their efficiency; and it shall be his duty also to see that the ambulances are not used for any other purpose than that for which they are designed and ordered. It shall be the duty of the medical director, or chief medical officer, of the army corps, previous to a march, and previous to and in time of action, or whenever it may be necessary to use the ambulances, to issue the proper orders to the captain for the distribution and management of the same, for collecting the sick and wounded and conveying them to their destination. And it shall be the duty of the captain faithfully and diligently to execute such orders. And the officers of the ambulance corps, including the medical director, shall make such reports, from time to time, as may be required by the Secretary of War, the Surgeon-General, the medical director of the army, or the commanding officer of the army corps in which they may be serving; and all reports to higher authority than the commanding officer of the army corps shall be transmitted through the medical director of the army to which such army corps belongs.
SEC. 6. And be it further enacted. That the first lieutenant assigned to the ambulances corps for a division shall have control, under the captain of his corps and the medical director of the army corps, of all the ambulances, medicine, and other wagons, horses, mules, and men in that portion of the ambulance corps. He shall be the acting assistant quartermaster for that portion of the ambulance corps, and will receipt for and be responsible for all the property belonging to it, and be held responsible for any deficiency in anything appertaining thereto. He shall have a traveling cavalry forge, a blacksmith, and a saddler, who shall be under his orders, to enable him to keep his train in order. He shall have authority to draw supplies from the depot quartermaster, upon requisitions approved by the captain of his corps, the medical director, and the commander of the army corps to which he is attached. It shall be his duty to exercise a constant supervision over his train in every particular, and keep it at all times ready for service.
SEC. 7. And be it further enacted. That the second lieutenant shall have command of the portion of the ambulance corps for a brigade, and shall be under the immediate orders of the first lieutenant, and he shall exercise a careful supervision over the sergeants and privates assigned to the portion ;of the ambulance corps for his brigade; and it shall be the duty of the sergeants to conduct the drills and inspections of the ambulances, under his ordered, of their respective regiments.
SEC. 8. And be it further enacted. That the ambulances shall be used only for the transportation of the sick and wounded, and, in urgent cases only, for medical supplies, and all persons shall be prohibited from using them, or requiring them to be used, for any other purpose. It shall be the duty of the officers of the ambulance corps to report to the commander of the army corps any violation of the provisions of this section, or any attempt to violate the same. And any officer who shall use an ambulance or require it to be used for any other purpose than as provided in this section shall, for the first offense, be publicly reprimanded by the commander of the army corps in which he may be serving, and for the second offense shall be dismissed from the service.
SEC. 9. And be it further enacted. That no person except the proper medical officers, or the officers, non-commissioned officers, and privates of the ambulance corps, or such person as may be specially assigned, by competent military authority, to do duty with the ambulance corps for the occasion, shall be permitted to take or accompany sick or wounded men to the rear, either on the march or upon of the field of battle.
SEC. 10. And be it further enacted. That the officers, non- commissioned officers, such manner as the Secretary of War shall deem proper; Provided, That officers and men may be relieved from service in said corps and others detailed to the same, subject to the examination provided in the second section of this act, in the discretion of the commanders of the armies in which they may be serving.
SEC. 11. And be it further enacted, That it shall be the duty of the commander of the army corps to transmit to the Adjutant- General the names and rank of all officers and enlisted men detailed for service in the ambulance corps of such army corps, stating the organizations from which they may have been so detailed; and if such officers and men belong to volunteer organizations, the Adjutant-General shall thereupon notify the Governors of the several States in which such organizations were raised of their detail for such service; and it shall be the duty of the commander of the army corps to report to the Adjutant-General, from time to time, the conduct and behavior of the officers and enlisted men of the ambulance corps, and the Adjutant-General shall forward copies of such reports, so far as they relate to officers and enlisted men of volunteer organizations, to the Governors of the States in which such organizations were raised.
SEC. 12. And be it further enacted. That nothing in this act shall be construed to diminish or impair the rightful authority of the commanders of armies, army corps, or separate detachments, over the medical and other officers and the noncommissioned officers and privates of their respective commands.
Approved March 11, 1864.
By order of Secretary of War.