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After two years passed in the California gold region he returned to Missouri. He participated in- the Kansas troubles in
and about Osawatomie, in the year 1856; joined the Confederate army, at Springfield, Mo., in Dec. 1861, and was elected Captain of Company A., 3rd Begiment, Missouri Infantry. He was promoted to Major of the same regiment in 1863, in which capacity he served until the close of the straggle. He was once severely wounded.
Since the close of the war he has been engaged in farming and at the same time interested in banking, railroading and
coal-mining. At the present time he resides on a splendid farm about four miles north of Richmond where he operates an extensive coal mine.