Friday, August 28, 2009

Battery D, Second U. S. Colored Light Artillery.

In this report John Kennedy gives the accounts on the bravery and the cowards of the men in his regiment at the fight at Fort Pillow.

Numbers 14. Reports of Captain Carl A. Lamberg, Battery D, Second U. S. Colored Light Artillery, of the capture of Fort Pillow.

April 20, 1864.

COLONEL: Not having as yet any statements and facts which would enable me to made on official report, but considering the interest you have always shown for my battery, it becomes my duty to write you this letter and give a statement of what I have heard about the section of battery which was on detached service at Fort Pillow, Tenn., and took part in the fight of the 12th instant:

Private John Kennedy, of said section, returned here wounded last Thursday. He informs me that the garrison fought well, repulsed two attacks, and were in good spirits and hopes that they would bee able to hold the fort against the overwhelming forces against them. He says it was considered among our men that if the troops had remained in the rifle-pits (from where they were drawn to the inner fort after Major Booth was killed) they may have held their ground and defeated the enemy.

During the last attack, when the rebels entered the works, I heard Major Bradford give the command, "Boys, save your lives." He heard Lieutenant Bischoff, of the Sixth U. S. Heavy Artillery (colored troops), object to this, saying to Major Bradford: "Do not let the men leave their pieces; let us fight yet;" but the major, turning around and seeing the rebels coming in from all sides, said, "It is of no use any more;" whereupon the men left their pieces and tried to escape in different directions and manners. He himself ran down to the creek, but within 2 feet of the same he was shot through both legs and fell down. He was Lieutenant Hunter (commanding officer of the section of my battery), with several others, jump in the river, the rebels firing at them, but he does not know with what effect, for at the same moment he was taken by the rebels, who searched him, turning his pockets inside out, requesting him to give up his greenbacks, &c. He saw some rebels go in a tent where Sergeant Mills and Privates Lewis Ingraham, Peter Lake, and Anderson Smith, all of my battery, were lying on their beds wounded and kill them, shooting them through their heads and bodies, notwithstanding their cries for mercy.

He then was forced to give up his jacket and put on a rebel coat, whereupon he was brought to a place about a mile in the rear of the fort and put under guard, together with, as he believes, 50 other prisoners, black and white. He was among them Lieutenant Bischoff, Sixth U. S. Heavy Artillery (colored), and First Sergt. J. D. Fox, with 5 men of my battery. He, unable to move around on account of his would, was tied up to a tree and lashed with a gun-sling. He saw the rebels kill several (to him unknown) colored soldiers after the surrender. Some of them were shot, others knocked on their heads with muskets until they died.

Some few of the rebel officers and men objected to these cruelties and outrages, but could not prevent it. He says he saw several wounded, but does not know more than one of my men killed during the fight. Mr. A. Alexander, a citizen of Memphis and sutler in by battery, was bravely fighting the rebels notwithstanding his age (over 50 years). He is reported to have been killed during the fight and afterward seen dead, still holding in his hand the musket he used so well. He leaves a destitute widow with two small children. He was a poor, but honest man.

The above are the main points of Private John Kennedy's report, who was prisoner with the rebels to the forenoon on the 15th instant, when he managed to escape.

Captain Second U. S. Light Arty. (colored), Commanding Batty. D.

Wednesday, August 26, 2009

Missouri 7th., & Old 3d, Cavalry Co. D. L. H.

Numbers 2. Report of Colonel John F. Philips, Seventh Missouri State Militia Cavalry.

Camp Grover, near Warrensburg, Mo., July 14, 1864.

CAPTAIN: I have the honor to report that, in obedience to orders received through sub- district headquarters, on the night of the 9th instant I sent *Major Houts, of my command, with 150 men, northwest of this place, with instructions to scout the country thoroughly. They went twenty- five miles, and then turning north struck the Missouri River at Wellington. In this march they discovered abundant signs of the presence of guerrillas. This country is a safe covert for these outlaws. It is a complete jungle and a perfect solitude, the adjacent country to the Sni affording forage and rations. Arriving at Wellington about 10 a. m. on Sunday morning, Major Houts learned from a reliable contraband that two guerrillas had been in this town that morning, and her opinion was they had gone to a church- Warder's Church- distant two miles, where a Hardshell was in the habit of preaching to the "Brushers" the unsearchable riches for good whisky and guerrilla warfare.

The major, with accustomed promptness, at once detached about fifty men, under command of the intrepid and cool- headed *Captain Henslee, Company L, and sent him to this church. The force approached this church by a narrow road, having to cross a bridge within twenty paces of the building an ascend avery abrupt bank. The captain took the precaution to send forward *Sergeant Brassfield with six men, with instructions to dash at all hazards over this bridge up the hill, and passing the church to occupy a position beyond, with a view of intercepting fugitives, and at the same time, by attracting the attention of the congregation, to make a diversion in favor of the main column. The guerrillas were then seven or eight in number, beside some outpost pickets on the Lexington road. The cry of "Feds!" thundered from the audience, and the worthy pastor, who was in the midst of a fervent supplication, found his flock greatly demoralized, and concluded it wasn't worth while to pray any longer under the circumstances.

The guerrillas were on the alert, some at their horses, some in the church, and one, who was to be married- perhaps that very day- to the pastor's daughter, was standing at the window, making love to his inamorata. The guerrillas as quick as thought saw their peril, and with drawn revolvers they began earnest work, with a nerve and determination worthy of a better cause. The captain's whole force was thrown into the work. The women and children screamed with terror, and, rushing wildly from the church, exhibited a method in their madness by throwing themselves in front of the rebel outlaws. Captain H., whose presence of mind is equaled only by his gallantry, rode out an commanded the women to "squat." They obeyed the summons, and the work of death went bravely on.

Five bushwhackers were killed outright, the sixth mortally wounded, and one or two, despite all vigilance, made their escape amid the furor and confusion. Wilhite and Estes were numbered among the slain. These were noted and desperate fellows, and their crimes are as back and infamous as they are numerous. Two horses and equipments were captured by us; five or six Colt navy revolvers. One man, *Corporal Cozad, Company L, was wounded in heel and left at Lexington. One horse and equipments lost, belonging to Private *James D. Barnes, Company D.

Justice to merit requires me to mention the names of Privates *John T. Anderson, Company L, and *James D. Barnes, Company D. Anderson was one of the advance who passed by the church. He received three shots through his clothes, one knocking the skin off his nose and one striking the pistol in his hand. He rode right in the midst of the scoundrels, and with great coolness and precision shot right and left, emptying twelve barrels and loading fur more, all the while directing the movements of other soldiers around him. Anderson was badly wounded a year ago in a hand to hand fight with Livingston, in Southwest Missouri. Barnes, discovering one of the bushwhackers making his escape, singled him out, charged on him, discharging his rifle flung it aside, and with drawn pistol spurred forward, chasing for half a mile the rebel who was firing back at him; Barnes holding his fire until he drew up on his game, was just in the act of shooting at short range when his horse fell headlong, precipitating the rider over his head with a fearful fall. The horse recovered and ran away after the guerrilla, carrying equipments, &c., all of which was the private property of the soldier, and is lost. Barnes is a mere boy and quite small, but is as bold and dashing a trooper as ever looked an enemy in the face.

From Wellington, Major Houts scoured the country to Lexington, from there to Columbus, Johnson County. Here he ran onto six or seven guerrillas who fled at first fire, and being well mounted, and our horse greatly jaded,they outran us and escaped. The command returned to camp yesterday, 13th instant. Number of miles traveled, 175.

I am, captain, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

Colonel Seventh Cavalry Missouri State Militia.

*John T. Anderson, Private, 7th., Cavalry Company K. or D., Private, 7th., Cavalry Missouri State Militia, enlisted March 20, 1862, at Chillicothe Mo., Mustered in April 5, 1862, at Chillicothe Mo., was discharged in November 1864, to accept a promotion.

*James D. Barnes, Private, 7th., Cavalry Company L., Missouri State Militia, enlisted March 27, 1862, at Georgetown Mo., Mustered in April 2, 1862, at Georgetown Mo., 1862, Mustered out April 1, 1865, at Warrensburg Mo.

*Major Thomas W. Houts, enlisted as Captain of the 7th, Cavalry, Missouri State Militia company A., on January 11, 1862, at Warrensbury Mo., mustered in March 8, 1862, at Warrensbury. Was given a promotion as Major on February 16, 1863. Dismissed on February 7, 1865.

*Captain Murline C. Henslee, mustered In at 33, years as a captain in the 7th, cavalry Missouri State Militia, company L., on April 23, 1862, at Princeton Mo., promoted to Major on December 29, 1864, mustered out on April 8, 1865.

*Corporal Jacob A. Cozad, enlister in the old 3d, cavalry company H., as a Corporal on April 1, 1862, in Mercer county Mo., mustered in April 5, 1862, at Chillcothe Mo., later to be transfed to the 7th, cavalry company l., he would later make Sergeant.

*Sergeant Gravnville M. Brassfield, enlisted in the old 3d, cavalry, Missouri State Militia, on April 5, 1862, at Chillicothe Mo., as a private of company H., mustered in same day and place, was sick on August 31, 1863, at Springfield Mo., promoted to Sergeant on December 31, 1862.

Tuesday, August 25, 2009

Pastors & Churchs Of The U. S. 1770's-1870's

The names placed here is to help you in a small way in your hunt for a Pastor or Church. There will be no additional information on these Pastors or Church’s.

1. George Duffield (1732-90), a Presbyterian minister and graduate of the College of New Jersey, was pastor of the Third Presbyterian Church in Philadelphia.

2. William White (1748-1836), an Anglican minister and rector of Christ Church in Philadelphia, became the first Episcopal bishop of Pennsylvania after the War for Independence.

3. Elihu Spencer (1721-84), pastor of the Presbyterian church in Trenton, N. J.
Alexander McWhorter (1734-1807), pastor of the Newark Presbyterian Church.

Both of whom had had missionary experience in North Carolina during the mid-1760's, accepted an assignment from Congress to persuade disaffected North Carolinians to support the American cause. The two ministers spent approximately four months in North Carolina early in 1776 working on this task; and although the fruits of their labors are unclear, Congress eventually paid each of them $261 for their efforts.

4. Israel Evans (1747-1807), After the war he served as pastor of the First Congregational Church in Concord, N. H.

5. William Gordon (1728/29-1807). a dissenting clergyman from England, became pastor of a Roxbury, Mass., parish in 1772. Gordon, a correspondent of Lord Dartmouth and an outspoken Whig by 1775, was made chaplain of the Massachusetts Provincial congress in May of that year. He also wrote widely for the newspapers and spent much of his time during the war collecting material for a history of the conflict.

6. James Caldwell, a Presbyterian pastor in Elizabethtown, N. J.

7. Nathan Holt (1725--;92), a 1757 graduate of Harvard College had been pastor of the Congregational Church of the 2d Parish of Danvers, Mass., Holten's hometown, since 1758.

8. Thomas Bradbury Chandler (1726 90), pastor of St. John's Church in Elizabethtown, N. J.

9. Elihu Spencer, pastor of the Presbyterian Church in Trenton.

10. The wife of Rev. Alexander McWhorter, pastor of the Presbyterian church in Newark, N.J., had recently been seriously injured when struck by lightning.

11. John Eliot (1754-1813) was pastor of the New North Church in Boston.

12. Ezra Stiles (1727-95), Congregational clergyman and scholar of wide-ranging interests, pastor of the Second Congregational Church, Newport, R.I., 1755-76, and president of Yale, 1778-95, was living in Dighton, Mass.

13. 1782, James Caldwell, pastor of the First Presbyterian Church at Elizabethtown, who had been shot under somewhat mysterious circumstances by an American sentry later suspected of loyalism.

14. James Caldwell (1734-81), a graduate of the College of New Jersey and pastor of the First Presbyterian Church in Elizabethtown, was serving as chaplain to the Third New Jersey Battalion, commanded by Col. Elias Dayton.

15. Dr. John Ewing (1732-1802), pastor of the First Presbyterian Church of Philadelphia, and provost and professor of natural philosophy at the University of Pennsylvania.

16. 1800, David Jones, pastor of the Baptist Church in Tredyffryn township, Chester County, State of Pennsylvania.

17. 1809, Gabriel Richard, pastor of the Catholic society in the Territory of Michigan, in behalf of himself and the members composing the said society, praying that a certain tract or parcel of land belonging to the United States, in the vicinity of Detroit, may be exclusively and permanently appropriated to the education of white children in that Territory, and of Indian children within the same, or its vicinity: also, that such proportion of land may be granted and confirmed to the head of each family, and each youth of the Wyandot tribe of Indians, under certain conditions

18. 1848, Benedict Madéore, vicar general of Florida, and pastor of the church of St. Augustine, and the memorial of the trustees and members of that church, praying the restoration of property belonging to the church, which was in properly conveyed to the United States, at the cession of Florida, as public property, by the Spanish authorities.

19. 1800, John Brown, Pastor of the Old Waxhaw Church, in South Carolina.

20. 1832, John Hughes, pastor of St. John's church, in Thirteenth street, in the city of Philadelphia, praying that the duties paid on certain articles of church furniture for the use of said church, may be refunded.

21. 1870, H. V. Brown, pastor and trustee of the St. Peter's and St. Paul's Catholic church at Chattanooga, Tennessee, praying compensation for the destruction of their church edifice in 1863 by United States troops.

22. 1834, Frederick W. Hatch, Pastor of Christ's Church, in the city of Washington.

23. 1873, H. V. Brown, pastor of St. Peter's and St. Paul's Catholic Church at Chattanooga, Tennessee.

24. 1874, George Lansing Taylor, pastor of the Methodist Episcopal church of Hempstead, New York.

25. 1867, John McMahon, a citizen of Anderson, Indiana, and pastor of the Catholic church.

26. 1834, Edward D. Smith, pastor of the second Presbyterian congregation, in the city of Washington.

27. 1868, Arnold Damon, pastor of the Church of the Holy Family, Chicago, Illinois, praying for remission of duties on an organ.

28. George C. Lorimer, pastor of the Union Temple church, of Boston, Massachusetts.

Civil War.

29. RICHMOND, VA., November 28, 1865.
Honorable E. M. STANTON, Secretary of War:

SIR: I most respectfully ask permission to visit Mr. Jefferson Davis, prisoner of state at Fortress Monroe, in the capacity of his pastor and spiritual adviser. More than four years ago Mr. Davis attached himself to my congregation in Richmond, and in the spring of 1862 he became a communicant of the church.

Your obedient servant,
DECEMBER 1, 1865.

30. E. J. SCOTT, Pastor of Bath Church.

31. RICHMOND, January 27, 1866.
I, Charles Minnigerode, D. D., of Richmond, Va., do hereby pledge my word of honor as a gentleman and Christian minister that in all the visits I am permitted to make to Mr. Jefferson Davis at Fortress Monroe, Va., I will confine myself to ministerial and pastoral duties, exclusive of every other object; that I will in no way be a medium of communication between the said Davis and the outer world; that I will observe the strictest silence as to the interviews, and will avoid all modes of publication, not only as to what passes between us but as to the fact of the visits themselves.

32. SANDUSKY CITY, OHIO, May 11, 1863.
Colonel WILLIAM HOFFMAN, Washington City.

HONORABLE SIR: Permit me to trouble you for a pass to visit the rebel prisoners at Johnson's Island. I am Catholic pastor in Sandusky City and successor to Rev. L. Molon, to whom you generously gave a permit. I in close a note from the major commanding, which will be for you a kind of testimony that all will be right. Excusing myself for troubling you,

I remain, honorable, sir, respectfully,

33. N. A. REED, Pastor of the Market Street Baptist Church.

34. WAR DEPARTMENT, C. S. A., Richmond, August 8, 1861.
General WINDER.
SIR: Mr. Mines, who represents himself as an Episcopal clergyman, is a prisoner on parole, and is staying with the Rev. Mr. Peterkin, the pastor of Saint James Church Richmond. This Department has good reasons to believe that he does not deserve to be put on parole. You will therefore have him arrested at once and confined in prison.

35. B. N. Benton, pastor of the Second Baptist Church, near the navy-yard. He resides 563 Fourth street east.

89 MADISON STREET, New York, December 13, 1861.
Honorable W. H. SEWARD, Secretary of State, Washington.

HONORED SIR: The in closed letter from a witness confined in Fort McHenry to his wife in this city is of a character to require the immediate attention of the proper authorities. The writer is a seaman, a member of my congregation. He is not accused of crime and yet appears to be treated worse than those who are traitors to our Government. Will you for the sake of his wife and three children who are now suffering for bread and for the sake of our common humanity read this letter and see that inquiry is made into the case?
Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

Pastor of the Mariner's Church.

37. Rev. W. J. ELLIS, Pastor Saint John's Church, Tallahassee.

EMINENCE, KY., May 20, 1865.

38. EDWARD C. SLATER, Of the Methodist Church.
J. F. BROWN, Of the Christian Church.
R. L. McELREE, Cumberland Presbyterian Church.
J. F. HENDRICKS, Pastor Presbyterian Church.
F. A. J. ANY, Episcopal Church.

39. November 8, 1865, On the 8th of November some Navajoes and Apaches from the west run off 3,000 head of sheep belonging to Don Jose Pine y Vaca, four miles from Limitar, N. Mex., and killed four pastores, who had the sheep in charge. Their names were Antonio Gallegos, Ramaldo Peralta, Francisco Capillo, and Lenovio Sarcilla. Instructions were sent to Major Eaton, commanding at Fort Wingate, to cross the country to the Rito Quemado and endeavor to cut the trail of the Indians.

40. JOHN T. WIGHTMAN, Pastor of Trinity Church.

African American Pastors Of The Civil War.

In the City of Savannah, Ga., Thursday evening.
January 12, 1865-8 p.m.

On the evening of Thursday, the 12th day of January, 1865, the following persons of African descent met, by appointment, to hold an interview with Edwin M. Stanton, Secretary of War, and Major-General Sherman, to have a conference upon matters relating to the freedmen of the State of Georgia, to wit:

1. William J. Campbell, aged fifty-one years, born in Savannah; slave until 1849, and then liberated by will of his mistress, Mrs. Mary Maxwell; for ten years pastor of the First Baptist Church of Savannah, numbering about 1,800 members; average congregation, 1,900; the church property, belonging to the congregation (trustees white), worth $18,000.

2. John Cox, aged fifty-eight years born in Savannah; slave until 1849, when he bought his freedom for $1,100; pastor of the Second African Baptist Church; in the ministry fifteen years; congregation, 1,222 persons; church property, worth $10,000, belonging to the congregation.

3. Ulysses L. Houston, aged forty-one years, born in Grahamville, S. C. ; slave "until the Union army entered Savannah; " owned by Moses Henderson, Savannah, and pastor of Third African Baptist Church, congregation numbering 400; church property, worth $5,000, belongs to congregation; in the ministry about eight years.

4. William Bentley, aged seventy-two years, born in Savannah; slave until twenty-five years of age, when his master, John Waters, emancipated him by will; pastor of Andrew's Chapel, Methodist Episcopal Church (only on of that denomination in Savannah), congregation numbering 360 members; church property worth about $20,000, and is owned by the congregation; been in the ministry about twenty years; a member of Georgia conference.

5. Charles Bradwell, aged forty years, born in Liberty County, Ga. ; slave until 1851; emancipated by will of his master, J. L. Bradwell; local preacher, in charge of the Methodist Episcopal congregation (Andrew's Chapel) in the absence of the minister; in the ministry ten years.

6. William Gaines, aged forty-one years, born in Wills County, Ga. ; slave "until the Union forces freed men; " owned by Robert Toombs, formerly U. S. Senator, and his further, Gabriel Toombs; local preacher of the Methodist Episcopal Church) Andrew's Chapel); in the ministry sixteen years.

7. James Hill aged fifty-two years, born in Bryan County, Ga. ; slave "up to the time the Union army come in; " owned by H. F. Willings, of Savannah; in the ministry sixteen years.

8. Glasgow Taylor, aged seventy-two years, born in Wilkes County, Ga., slave "until the Union army come; " owned by A. P. Wetter; is a local preacher of the Methodist Episcopal Church (Andrew 's Chapel)" in the ministry thirty-five years.

9. Garrison Frazier, aged sixty-seven years, born in Granville County, N. C. ; slave until eight years ago, when he bought himself and wife, paying $1,000 in gold and silver; is an ordained minister in the Baptist Church, but, his health falling, has now charge of no congregation; has been in the ministry thirty-five years.

10. James Mills, aged fifty-six years, born in Savannah; freeborn, and is a licensed preacher of the First Baptist Church; has been eight years in the ministry.

11. Abraham Burke, aged forty-eight years, born in Bryan County, Ga. ; slave until twenty years ago, when he bought himself for $800; has been in the ministry about ten years.

12. Arthur Wardell, aged forty-four years, born in Liberty County, Ga. ; slave until "fried by the Union Army; " owned by A. A. Solomons, Savannah, and is a licensed minister in the Baptist Church; has been in the ministry six years.

13. Alexander Harris, aged forty-seven years, born in Savannah; freeborn; licensed minister of Third African Baptist Church; licensed about one month ago.

14. Andrew Neal, aged sixty-one years, born in Savannah; slave "until the Union army liberated me; " owned by Mr. William Gibsons, and has been deacon in the Third Baptist Church for ten years.

15. James Porter, aged thirty-nine years, born in Charleston, S. C. ; freeborn, his mother having purchased her freedom; is lay render and president of the board of wardens and vestry of Saint Spethen's Protestant Episcopal Colored Church in Savannah; has been in communion nine yeas; the congregation numbers about 200 persons; the church property is worth about $10,000, and is owned by the congregation.

16. Adolphus Delmotte, aged, twenty-eight years, born in Savannah; freeborn; is a licensed minister of the Missionary Baptist Church of Milledgeville, congregation numbering about 300 or 400 persons; has been in the ministry about two years.

17. Jacob Godfrey, aged fifty-seven years, born in Marion, S. C. ; slave "until the Union army freed me; " owned by James E. Godfrey, Methodist preacher, now in the rebel Army; is a class leader and steward of Andrew's Chapel since 1863.

18. John Johnson, aged fifty-one years, born in Bryan County, Ga. ; slave "up to the time the Union army came here; " owned by W. W. Lincoln, of Savannah; is class leader and treasurer of Andrew's Chapel for sixteen years.

19. Robert N. Taylor, aged fifty-one years, born in Wilkes County, Ga. ; slave " to the time the Union army come; " was owned by Augustus P. Wetter, Savannah, and is class leader in Andrew's Chapel for nine years.

20. James Lynch, aged twenty-six years, born in Baltimore, Md. ; freeborn; is presiding elder of the Methodist Episcopal Church, and missionary to the Department of the South; has been seven years in the ministry and two years in the South.

Garrison Frazier, being chosen by the persons present to express their common sentiments upon the matters of inquiry, makes answers to inquiries as follows:

First. State what your understanding is in regard to the acts of Congress and President Lincoln's proclamation touching the condition of the colored people in the rebel States.

Answer. So far as I understand President Lincoln's proclamation to the rebellious States, it is, that if they would lay down their arms and submit to the laws of the United States before the 1st of January, 1863, all should be well, but if they did not, then all the slaves in the rebel States should be free, henceforth and forever. That is what I understood.

Second. State what you understand by slavery, and the freedom that was to be given by the President's proclamation.

Answer. Slavery is receiving by irresistible power the work of another man, and not by his consent. The freedom, as I understand it, promised by the proclamation is taking us from under the yoke of bondage and placing us where we could reap the fruit of our own labor and take care of ourselves and assist the Government in maintaining our freedom.

Third. State in what manner you think you can take care of yourselves, and how can you best assist the Government in maintaining your freedom.

Answer. The way we can best take care of ourselves is to have land, and turn in and it by our labor-that is, by the labor of the women, and children, and old men-and we can soon maintain ourselves and have something to spare; and to assist the Government the young men should enlist in the service of the Government, and serve in such manner as they may be wanted. (The rebels told us that they piled them up and made batteries of them, sold them to Cuba, but we don't believe that.) We want to be placed on land until we are able to buy it and make it our own.

Fourth. State in what manner you would rather live, whether scattered among the whites or in colonies by yourselves?

Answer. I would prefer to live by ourselves, for there is a prejudice against us in South that will take years to get over, but I do not know that I can answer for my brethren.

Mr. Lynch says he thinks they should not be separated, but live together. All the other persons present being questioned, one by one, answer that they agree with "Brother Frazier. ")

Fifth. Do you think that there is intelligence enough among the slaves of the South to maintain themselves under the Government of the United States, and the equal protection of its laws, and maintain good and peaceable relations yourselves and with your neighbors?

Answer. I think there is sufficient intelligence among us to do so.

Sixth. State what is the feeling of the black population of the South toward the Government of the United States; what is the understanding in respect to the present war, its causes and objects, and their disposition to aid either side. State fully your views.

Answer. I think you will find there is thousands that are willing, to make any sacrifice to assist the Government of the United States, while there is also many that are now willing to take up arms. I do not suppose there is a dozen men that is opposed to the Government. I understand as to the war that the South is the aggressor. President Lincoln was elected President by a majority of the United States, which guaranteed him the right of holding the office and exercising that right over the whole United States. The South, without knowing what he would do, rebelled. The war was commenced by the rebels before he came into the office. The object of the war was not, at first, to give the slaves their freedom, but the sole object of the war was, at first, to bring the rebelk into the Union and their loyalty to the laws of the United States. Afterward, knowing the value that was set on the slaves by the rebels, the President though that his proclamation would stimulate them to lay down their arms, reduce them to obedience, and help to bring back the rebel States, and their not doing so has now made the freedom of the slaves a part of the war. It is my opinion that there is not a man in this city that could be started to help the rebels one inch, for that would be suicide. There was two black men left with the rebels, because they had taken an active part of the rebels, and thought something might befall them if they staid behind, but there is not another man. If the prayers that have gone up for the Union army could be read out you would not get through them these two weeks.

Seventh. State whether the sentiments you now express are those only of the colored people in the city, or do they extend to the colored population through the country, and what are your means of knowing the sentiments of those living in the country.

Answer. I think the sentiments are the same the colored people of the State. My opinion is formed by personal communication in the course of my ministry, and also from the thousands that followed the Union Army, leaving their homes and undergoing suffering. I did not think there would be so many; the number surpassed my expectation.

Eighth. If the rebel leaders were to arm the slaves what would be its effects?

Answer. I think they would fight as long as they were before the bayonet, and just as soon as they could get away they would desert, in my opinion.

Ninth. What, in your opinion, is the feeling of the colored people about enlisting and serving as soldiers of the United States, and what kind of military service do they prefer?

Answer. A large number have gone as soldier to Port Royal to be drilled and put in the service, and I think there is thousands of the young men that will enlist; there is something about them that, perhaps, is wrong; they have suffered so long from the rebels that they want to meet and have a chance with them in the field. Some of them want to shoulder the musket, others want to go into the quartermaster or the commissary's service.

Tenth. Do you understand the mode of enlistment of colored persons in the rebel States, by State agents, under the act of Congress? If yea, state what your understanding is.

Answer. My understanding is that colored persons enlisted by State agents are enlisted as substitutes, and give credit to the States, and do not swell the Army, because every black man enlisted by a State agent leaves a white man at home; and also, that larger bounties are given or promised by the State agents than are given by the States. The great object should be to push through this rebellion the shortest way, and there seems to be something wanting in the enlistment by State agents, for in don't strengthen the Army, but takes one away for every colored man enlisted.

Eleventh. State what, in your opinion, is the best way to enlist colored men for soldiers.

Answer. I think, sir, that all compulsory operations should be put a stop to. The ministers would talk to them, and the young men would enlist. It is my opinion that it would be far better for the State agents to stay at home, and the enlistments to be made for the United States under the direction of General Sherman.

In the absence of General Sherman the following question was asked: Twelfth. State what is the feeling of the colored people in regard to General Sherman,* and how far do they regard his sentiments and actions as friendly to their rights and interests, or otherwise.

Answer. We looked upon General Sherman, prior to his arrival, as a man, in the providence of God, specially set apart to accomplish t unanimously felt inexpressible gratitude to him, looking upon him as a man that should be honored for the faithful performance of his duty. Some of us called upon him immediately upon his arrival, and it is probable he did not meet the Secretary with more courtesy than he met us. His conduct and deportment toward us characterized him as a friend and a gentleman. We have confidence in General Sherman, and think that what concerns us could not be under better hands. This is our opinion now from the short acquaintance and intercourse we have had.

(Mr. Lynch states that, with his limited acquaintance with General Sherman, he is unwilling to express an opinion. All others present declare their agreement with Mr. Frazier about General Sherman.)

Some conversation upon general subjects relating to General Sherman's march then ensued, of which no note was taken.

Washington, February 1, 1865.

Monday, August 24, 2009

A Prison Mutiny At Cahaba Ala.

Cahaba, Ala., January 23, 1865.
General J. D. IMBODEN, August, Ga.:

GENERAL: On the morning of Friday, January 20, there was a mutiny in the Federal prison under my command. The prisoners simultaneously rushed upon the interior guards, disarmed and captured them. They then placed them under guard in the water - closets. Two sentinels posted at the entrance of the main prison from the stockade succeeded in making their escape and in giving the alarm to the sentries on the ramparts and the reserve guard. A courier was dispatches to the commanding officer of the troops at the post, who promptly ordered out the battalion under arms. A piece of artillery was brought to bear upon the prisoners, and all was very soon quieted down and inquest made for the ringleaders. I issued an order stopping the rations of the prisoners until the ringleaders were announced.

This had the effect of securing five witnesses, whose testimony in the main is concurrent, and led to the detection and arrest of those most prominent in the affair. The man with whom the scheme originated was one George Schellar, alias *Captain Hanchett and Robert Cox. This Schellar was captured by General Forrest near Nashville, Tenn., December 3, 1864. He was disguised as a citizen and was so registered and imprisoned by the provost - marshal - general of the Army of Tennessee, and at every post where it became necessary in his transit to this place. You will see by his confession that he declares his object to have been to be speedily sent through the lines. The most probable conjecture is that he dressed himself as a citizen and put himself in position to be captured, for the purpose of obtaining information of the strength and movements of the Confederate forces.

After the defeat of the mutiny I made a demand upon his company in the prison for him, but could get no satisfaction. I then stationed his messmates along a line and passed all the prisoners, requiring them to identify and point him out as he passed. I did not succeed. I then took the prisoners that I had arrested and placed them on my right. Among these was one of the informers who knew him. I instructed him to put his foot upon mine as he approached. I then again passed the prisoners through a guard at open ranks, and by the strategy indicated above I succeeded in arresting him. He was very much excited, and when I addressed him by his alias he confessed that he was not George Schellar, but *Captain Hanchett, of Company M, Sixteenth Illinois Cavalry, and at the time of his capture acting assistant adjutant - general on Colonel Capron's staff, commanding a brigade.

The prisoners has shaved off his moustache and whiskers, changed his clothes, and otherwise tried to disguise himself. This he did to avoid detection. The investigation was conducted by several officers and myself before the commandant of the post, and from the testimony and his own confession, &c., in undoubtedly the ringleader of the mutiny and a most unmitigated scoundrel. All of us who were present at this investigation are thoroughly convicted, not only of his guilty leadership in this mutiny, but that he is an exceedingly dangerous and bad man. The colonel commanding post is thoroughly of the opinion that hiss mission among us was that of a spy. Hence he was securely ironed and with seven of hiss confederates confined in a dungeon in the county jail.

By reading the in closed transcript of the testimony elicited in the investigation you will be able to form a pretty correct opinion of the history of this transaction and the degree of guilt which attaches to each particular individual under arrest. During the excitement not a single prisoner effected his escape.

The question which I desire answered is: What course is it proper to pursue with the chiefs of this mutiny and those who were leagued with them? Having no statute, regulation, or precedent to govern us, we are at a loss to know what courses to adopt, and I most respectfully ask the instructions of the general commanding.
I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
Captain, Commanding.

* Hiram s. Hanchett, Rank CPT., Company M. Unit 16 IL. US CAV. Residence WOODSTOCK, MCHENRY CO, IL., Age 37, Height 5' 7 ½, Hair DARK, Eyes DARK, Complexion FAIR, Marital Status MARRIED, Occupation LAWYER, Nativity CANADA, Joined When NOV 4, 1862 Joined Where WOODSTOCK, IL., for 3 years, Muster In MAY 19, 1863, Muster In Where CAMP BUTLER, IL. Remarks COMMISSIONED MAJOR NOT MUSTERED CAPTURED NOV 22, 1864 NEAR HENRYVILLE TENN., STILL A PRISONER OF WAR

POST OF CAHABA, ALA., January 25, 1865.
Respectfully forwarded for the information of and orders from the brigadier - general commanding the prison department.

I am fully convinced that Captain Hanchett, alias Schellar, is a spy and a dangerous man and deserves a spy's fate.

Lieutenant - Colonel, Commanding Post.


Evidence elicited at the headquarters of the post concerning the mutiny in Federal prison, Cahaba, Ala., January 20, between the hours [of] 3 and 4 a. m.

Arrest - *George Schellar, alias Captain Hanchett, called. Wad told by commandant that he would not be required to give evidence against himself, but that if he had any voluntary statement to make to proceed. Said he is captain of Company M, Sixteenth Illinois Cavalry. At time captured was acting assistant adjutant - general Colonel Capron's staff, commanding brigade. The inducement for him to pass himself as a citizen was that Colonel Kofer said that the citizens would be passed through the lines immediately. Was not the instigator of the mutiny, but took part in it.

Arrest - Private Robert Cox, Company G, One hundred and fifteenth Ohio, called. Does not know anything about the mutiny. Heard a noise and got up and walked toward the front entrance, and Captain Hanchett grabbed him by the arm, handed him a musket, and told him to take it, which he did, and set it down about two paces from the place where he received it. Captain Hanchett continued to run to and for from the entrance of the prison, calling for 100 men, and when he failed to get them ordered everybody to their bunks. Does not know how many were engaged in the mutiny. Heard the men speaking of the attempt to break out one week before, but does not remember any names. He recognized Captain Hanchett as the man who placed the musket in his hands.

Witness - *Francis M. Prim, M, Nineteenth Pennsylvania Cavalry, called. Recognized Robert Cox, One hundred and fifteenth Ohio, as one of three men who charged up to the entrance with a musket in his hand. When they charged the guard they ran. Recognized Captain Hanchett as the man who ran over him in returning from the main entrance to the middle of the prison, as also he who called for 100 men.

*Francis M. Primrm, Private, mustered in August 9, 1863, Company M, Nineteenth Pennsylvania Cavalry, Prisoner from November 23, 1864, to April 4, 1865; discharged by General Order, June 24, 1865

Arrest - Private John W. Lightbody, Company D, Eighteenth Ohio infantry, called. Knew nothing about the mutiny until the alarm was given. When he got up saw three muskets lying between the bunks as the entrance. Knew nothing about the plan to capture the guards. Knows nothing about Captain Hanchett. Heard men crying out "the guard has been captured," and "get up." Captain Hanchett had on citizens' clothes and wore a heavy beard.

Witness - *Private George [W.] Salter, D, Third Iowa Cavalry, called. Recognizes Captain Hanchett and Private Cox and being the two men who charged the guard at the entrance with muskets. Mentions that John W. Lightbody, Eighteenth Ohio, told him the evening before the mutiny that it was the purpose of the prisoners to break out that night. Recognize Lightbody as the man who was busily engaged in the middle of the prison when 100 men were called for. Heard him say, "Come on, boys," and when they did not respond Captain Hanchett said, "Let them go; they are a damned set of cowards."

*Salter, George W. Age 19. Residence Van Buren County. Enlisted Feb. 22, 1864. Mustered March 16, 1864. Mustered out Aug. 9, 1865, Atlanta, Ga.

Witness - Citizen Jacob E. Lachler, passenger on steamer Prairie State, citizen of Pennsylvania, called. Belongs to same mess as Captain Hanchett. Knew nothing of mutiny until he heard a guard hallo. Captain Hanchett represented himself as a citizen. Did not tell him mess of the intended mutiny.

Citizen E. McCullough, pilot steamer Prairie State, plying between Nashville and Saint Louis, stated substantially the same as Lachler.

Witness - Citizen E. Baker, New York captured on the turnpike, five miles from Nashville, called. In Government employ. First he knew of the disturbance was that he heard some one hallooing. Captain Hanchett mess with him, but did not inform the mess of the mutiny. It was the prevalent opinion among the prisoners that Captain H. was the instigator of the plot. Recognizes Hanchett ass the man who went into the prison under the name of George Schellar. Recognizes Hanchett and Schellar as identical.

Arrest - *George W. Riley, corporal, Twenty-seventh Illinois Infantry, called. Knows nothing at all about the mutiny.

* George W. Riley, enlisted as a private, Company I Unit 27 IL US INF
Residence NEPONSET, BUREAU CO, IL., Age 20, Height 5' 9, Hair DARK, Eyes HAZEL, Complexion DARK, Occupation FARMER, Nativity PA., Joined When JAN 1, 1864, Joined Where BLAINS X ROADS, TN., Period 3 YRS. Muster In FEB 12, 1864, Muster In Where CHATTANOOGA, TN. Remarks VETERAN TRANS TO CO E 9 ILL INF (AS CONSOLIDATED) APR 10, 1865.

Arrest - Private Godfrey Hammarberg, H, Ninth Minnesota Infantry, called. Told George Salter, D, Third Iowa Cavalry, that George Riley, told him that a certain whistle would blow, and if he heard another whistle he must get up and give held. Then asked him if they thought they could get out of prison. Replied, "did not think they could;" "have seen so many trials made at is." Recognizes G. W. Riley, corporal, Twenty - seventh Illinois, as the man who told him about the whistle. Says he did not hear the second whistle. Did not see Riley during the disturbance. First he knew of the riot was when the Confederate officer came in the prison and demanded the muskets of the prisoners. Heard that there was a captain of the U. S. Army who was "playing off citizen" in prison. Heard some one call for 100 men a short time before the Confederate officer came into the prison, and as he entered he heard some one say "Lay down."

Witness - Private *George W. Sherman, Fourth Michigan Cavalry, called. Says a man by the name of Becker he saw running through the prison calling for 100 men. Saw James Morrison running through prison with a gun. George Hoff, one of the instigators.

*George W. Sherman, Home Farmington, Michigan, enlistment age 21.

Arrest - Private Thompson Hanson, E, Ninth Ohio Cavalry, called, Knew nothing about the plot of the prisoners to get out.

Arrest - Martin A. Becker, Company D, Thirteenth Wisconsin Infantry, cook for sick in prison, called. Said: Didn't get out of my bunk night of riot but once, and that to go to spring. About half - past 4 a. m. was aroused by a noise in the middle of prison, when I raised up in my bunk and was four or five men holding a man, whom they said had been stealing blankets. I immediately afterward heard a man call for 100 men, and say, "The guards are captured." Soon after I heard a man say, "Lay down." I deny that I an one of those called for 100 men. It was the prevailing opinion in the prison that Captain Hanchett was one of the leaders in the disturbance.

Arrest - James Morrison, Company G, Nineteenth Pennsylvania Cavalry, cook for sick in prison, called. First he knew of the disturbance was when the men were ordered back by a Confederate officer. Then said: The first I heard of the disturbance was some one calling out, "He will never steal another blanket." Shortly afterward I saw several men running through the prison with guns, and heard one of them crying out for 100 men.

Arrest - *Osmond F. Foster, I, Seventh Pennsylvania Cavalry, called, said:
Did not get off my bunk the night of the disturbance. First I knew of it heard some one say something about stealing a blanket. Captain Hanchett, under his assumed name of George Schellar, was introduced to me on hiss arrival at prison, and was represented to be steward on a steam - boat; shortly after heard he was a captain in the U. S. Army. Never told any person that Becker was the leader of a previous plan in which 200 men were enlisted, but which was not executed, nor that he not under arrest. Knew nothing about the mutiny beforehand. It was the prevailing opinion of the prisoners that Captain Hanchett was the leader of the mutiny. Recognize him as one of the me now under arrest. Heard since the riot that about twenty or twenty-five were engaged in it. Do not know the intention of the men in case they succeeded. Was not a participant, and knew nothing of it before it occurred.

*Osmond F. Foster, Private, Mustered in August 18, 1863, Prisoner from October 1, 1864, to May 20, 1865; discharged June 27, 1865.

Arrest - *George H. Hoff, F, One hundred and fourteenth Illinois Infantry:

Knew nothing of the riot until I saw a piece of artillery in the door of the prison and bearing upon my bunk, when I got down and went inside the main bunk-room. The first I knew of the riot was i heard some one cry, "Steal another blanket, will you?" Also one calling out for 100 men. I raised up from my bunk and saw a Confederate officer standing in the door with a piece of artillery, and demanding the muskets taken from the guard. I then got down from my bunk and went to another part of the prison on which the cannon was not bearing. I thought the plot to get out a very foolish one. I could not myself have escaped, as I was wounded.

*George H. Hoff, Rank PVT., Company F., Unit 114 IL. US INF., Residence TALLULA, MENARD CO, IL., Age 19, Height 6' Hair DARK, Eyes GRAY, Complexion DARK, Marital Status SINGLE, Occupation BLACKSMITH, Nativity TRENTON, MERCER CO, N. J., Joined When AUG 11, 1862, Joined Where TALLULA, IL., Period 3 YRS., Muster In SEP 18, 1862, Muster In Where SPRINGFIELD, IL., Muster Out AUG 10, 1865, Muster Out Where SPRINGFIELD, IL., Remarks CAPTURED AT GUNTOWN MISS JUN 10, 1864.

Doctor Whitfield, surgeon of the prison, was here called in to examine the prisoners, to see if he was physically disabled to make a march, and testified that he is capable of making a march any distance and "not at all incapacitated from his wound."
Prisoners recalled: I did not know a single man engaged in the plot, but said that I would remain in prison 122 days before I would inform on the mutineers, if I knew.

Arrest - *Patrick Ponsonby, G, Thirteenth Illinois Infantry: About 8 o'clock the night of the riot I was sitting on my bunk when one of the men came to me and asked if I knew anything about the break they intended to make that night. I told him that I did not, and that it would be very foolish as I once broke out of prison at Meridian and afterward gave myself up, knowing I could not make our lines. Miller was the name of the man who asked me if I knew anything about the plot. The next morning I was awakened by men crying out "He will not steal another blanket." Shortly after I heard some one calling for 100 men. So far as I could see there was no responses to the call, but many of the prisoners cried out, "Lay down." About ten minutes afterward a Confederate officer came to the door of the prison with a cannon and demanded of the prisoners the guns. Was told that Captain Hanchett came into the prison as a citizens, but heard that after the riot he changed his citizens' clothes said that he was a captain in the U. S. Army. It was the prevailing opinion of the prisoners that Captain Hanchett was a captain in the U. S. Army and that he was the instigator of the mutiny.

*Patrick Ponsonby, Rank PVT., Company G. Unit 13 IL., US INF., Residence ST CHARLES, KANE CO, IL., Age 22, Height 6' ½, Hair LIGHT, Eyes LIGHT, Complexion LIGHT, Marital Status SINGLE, Occupation COOPER, Nativity LIMERICK, LIMERICK, IRELAND. Joined When JUN 6, 1861, Joined Where DIXON, IL., Period 3 YRS, Muster In JUN 6, 1861, Muster In Where DIXON, IL., Muster Out JUN 2, 1865, Muster Out Where SPRINGFIELD, IL., Remarks CAPTURED AT MADISON ALA 17 MAY 1864.

Witness - George Stoneman, recalled: I know Martin A. Becker; saw him running about the prison and calling for 100 men; attention drawn to him by his cries for men. This was after it had been announced that the guards had been captured. Becker said, "The guards have all been mugged - and my God, boys, ain't you going to stand by me?" (Identified Becker under arrest as the man.) Prisoner said, "Lay down; did you never see a crazy man?" and did not manifest a disposition to join him. Becker went to the back part of the prison and I saw no more of him. Thompson Hanson told me that Becker was one of the instigators of the mutiny. I was informed that only twenty men attacked the guards and that they depended on other joining the. I know James Morrison; I saw him before the men were ordered back by Confederate officers, running from the front entrance with a gun. This was before 100 men were called for. Shortly after leaving the entrance two men turned off to the right and went down the dead-line, and Morrison moved in the direction of the privy. This the last I saw of him. I know Osmond F. Foster; did not see him the night of the disturbance; I saw him after and he told me that "we got up a plan before in which a large number were engaged, and before the time occurred some one turned traitor and the scheme was abandoned. This time we thought it best to have only twenty." Foster admitted to me that he was a participator. I know George H. Hoff. Did not see him on the night of the riot; he told me the next morning that there was a major - general in there who got up the mutiny. Said he knew who the mutineers were, but that he would stay in prison 122 days and fast before he would give any information. Did not say that he had anything to do with it. I know Patrick Ponsonby; was sitting on a bunk with Thompson Hanson and Posnonby passed; Hanson pointed to him and remarked, "There is a man who was engaged in the mutiny."

Captain, Commanding Prison.