Friday, February 26, 2010

Etienne Bernot & Somerville Norris 1860.

I found the information on this invention very interesting and I think you well too.

Chap. CXCII. — An Act to confirm and establish a Patent heretofore granted to Etienne Bernot, dated July twenty-four, eighteen hundred and sixty, and to secure to George Somerville Norris, the Assignee of said Patent, the Benefit of the full term for which said Patent was granted.

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That the patent granted to Etienne Bernot on the twenty-fourth day of July, in the year eighteen hundred and sixty, for” an improved machine for cutting files,” and which patent, on the face thereof was granted for the term of fourteen years from the date of said patent, shall be, and the same is hereby, made a valid grant for the full term of fourteen years from the date of said patent, notwithstanding the fact that a patent had been previously granted in France for the same invention, and notwithstanding that said patent, when issued, ought to have been granted only for the term of fourteen years, to be computed from the date of the said patent, previously issued in France.

Sec. 2. And be it further enacted, That the title of George Somerville Norris, as assignee of said patent, under the assignment made to him by said Etienne Bernot, dated October eight, eighteen hundred and sixty, and recorded in the Patent Office, shall be good and valid to vest in said assignee, his executors, administrators, and assigns, the executive right, under the said patent, for the full period of the term of fourteen years from the date of said patent, in like manner and to the same extent as if the said patent, when originally issued, had been validly granted for fourteen years from the date thereof.
APPROVED, July 16, 1862.

Note Those of you who would like to read more about this invention and how it works can find out by using this link: There will also be three drawings of the invention to look at.

Thursday, February 25, 2010

Accidents In The Civil War.

In the time of Civil War, or any war for that matter, one thinks of those in the fight and those being killed or wounded in battle. But there are more then one way one can be killed or wounded in the service, and that is by accident. I wonder how many of are Great-great-grad fathers told his family he was wounded at some great battle and left it at that, no one would know the truth as more then likely the family would not see his discharge papers and find out the truth. Now I know why he may have stretched the truth a little how embarrassing it would be to have to tell your family that you were at this great battle only to be taken out of the fight because of a accident, by either dumb luck our his own stupidity. But let us not forget that he was at the battle even if it was just for a little while and saw the horrors of war.

Private George W. Davis, Company A, was accidentally shot by some one foraging near the road November 18, and died that night;
Service: Rank Private Company A Unit 129 Illinois United States Infantry, Residence ODELL, LIVINGSTON CO, ILL., Age 21, Height 6' ½, Hair BROWN, Eyes GRAY, Complexion DARK, Marital Status SINGLE, Occupation FARMER, Nativity New York, Joined When AUG 2, 1862, Joined Where PONTIAC, ILL., Period 3, years, Muster In SEP 8, 1862, Muster In Where PONTIAC, ILL. DIED NOV 17 or 18, 1864 AT MADISON GA. OF WOUNDS RECD ACCIDENTALLY.

Mortimer Odett, 3rd., New York Cavalry, Company G, accidentally shot himself, June 15, 1864.

Captain Willington or wellington S. Lee, Company F, Third Illinois Cavalry, was accidentally shot on August 21, 1863 by one of his men; wound probably mortal.
Service: Rank 1Lieutenant Company F Unit 3rd., Illinois United States Cavalry, Residence QUINCY, ADAMS CO, ILL., Age 37, Height 5' 10, Hair BROWN, Eyes HAZEL, Complexion LIGHT, Marital Status MARRIED, Occupation LAWYER, Nativity ERIE CO, PA., Joined When AUG 5, 1861, Joined Where QUINCY, ILL., Period 3, years, Muster In AUG 24, 1861, Muster In Where CAMP BUTLER, ILL., PROMOTED CAPTAIN. Captain, DIED OF WOUNDS AUG 29, 1863

Private William Flannery, 13th., New York, Infantry, Company F, was accidentally shot in the arm by his own rifle.

On the 20th we remained in the position of the previous day until 5 p. m. Captain Samuel F. McKee, Company H, in charge of the skirmishers of the regiment, was this day accidentally shot ad mortally wounded by one of the men of his command. Death ended his sufferings the day following. His loss is a great one to the regiment and to the service. Always faithful and punctual in the discharge of his duties in the camp and in the field, he had gained the confidence and respect of his brother officers, who feel that they have lost in him a true friend and an officer deserving a more glorious fate. His meritorious conduct in this and previous campaigns entitled him to the high appreciation in which he was held by all who knew him.
Service: Samuel F. M'Kee, Adjutant mustered in October 18, 1862. Promoted to Captain Company H, March 12, 1864, Company H., Promoted from Adjutant, March 12, 1864; died June 25, of wounds received June 20, 1864.

May 27, 1864, Thomas C. Case, 98th., Ohio, Company C, who, it is supposed by many, accidentally shot himself dead.

September 22, 1863, Private Ed. Hurst accidentally shot himself. In line of battle.
May have been of the fourth Indiana Infantry.

Early on the morning of July 3d, 1863,Colonel Frederick H. Collier of the 139 Pennsylvania Infantry, accidentally shot himself through the foot with a pistol-ball, and was compelled to leave his command.
Service: Frederick H. Collier, Colonel, mustered in September 1, 1862. Accidentally wounded at Gettysburg, Pa., July 3, 1863; brevet Brigadier General, March 13, 1865; discharged November 27, 1865.

May (?), 1863, Bugler, William H. Leeser, fifth United States Cavalry, of Company B, accidentally shot himself while on picket at Kelly's ford.

July (?), 1863, Westport, Charles Laturner, private, 8th., Michigan Cavalry, Company G, was accidentally shot through the body, and was left, under proper care.
Service: Home was Clinton, age 18 years om enlistment. Was of Companies K., G. and K.

December (?), 1862, During the afternoon of this day Corporal. William K. Worth, of the 23rd., Massachusetts Infantry, company I., accidentally shot himself through the hand.

March 25, 1862, Lieutenant William Marshall, 1st., Colorado Volunteers, company F., accidentally shot himself while breaking a loaded musket which he held in his hand by the muzzle.

March or April 10, 1862, Thomas W. Spriggs, private, 2nd., New Jersey Infantry Company C., was accidentally shot through the head while removing his musket from the stack, and expired in a few moments.

TORPEDO BUREAU, Richmond, Va., November 18, 1864.

Secretary of War:

SIR: I have the honor to state that notwithstanding the vigilance of the enemy we have managed, from time to time, to transfer to their rear torpedoes; but many abortive attempts thus to destroy their shipping before I came here - but one success, I believe, in the James River - have rendered them so watchful that I almost despair of accomplishing anything that way now, with the obstructions in the river and guards to their vessels. It has had one good effect, however, in causing the enemy to watch the river-banks with thousands of their soldiers, who might otherwise be employed against us. We have relied somewhat necessarily upon the " Singer torpedoes," which were located at spots visited by the boats of the enemy, but, as before reported to the engineer bureau, with no adequate results, leading to a doubt of their efficiency in salt water where barnacles and young oysters abound.

Our operations have been mainly directed to the James, Pamunkey, and Chickahominy Rivers, and some attempts made in Appomattox with torpedoes. When I left Richmond for Wilmington, in the fall of 1862, we commenced planting submarine mortar batteries in the James, and it is much to be regretted that the officer who relieved me in the submarine defenses did not continue their use, as these, the enemy report, being of a nature they could not remove, kept them out of Charleston harbor. Our efforts for the defense of this place have been directed lately to planting subterra shells between our lines of abatis at our works commanded by General Barton. We have planted at this date 1,298 subterra shells so protected by tin covers inverted over them as thoroughly to shield them from the effect of rain and increase the area of the primer, and might thus be put at the bottom of the river without deteriorating their efficacy. For the protection of our own men, immediately in rear of each shell, at a distance of three feet, is planted a small red flag on a staff three feet long to indicate where it is, which is to be removed at night-fall or if the enemy approach, to be replaced as soon thereafter as necessary.

There are pathways made for egress and ingress of our soldiers through these flags and shells indicated by longer streamers, and is intended to be surmounted at night by lanterns with lamp or candle having three darkened sides, and one glass covered with red flannel, as soon as they can be made; the pathway between two of these being safe at night, and the light easily extinguished at any moment. These shells now seem to be popular with our officers and are being planted as fast as our limited means will permit, say about 100 per diem. From reports of deserters they are rapidly demoralizing the enemy. Unfortunately in planting one of these shells a few days since one of our best men thus employed, William S. Deupree, accidentally fell upon one and was immediately killed in full sight of the foe, who, hearing the explosion, was attacked to the spot, observing the effects and what was doing. In closed is a diagram of the position of the subterra shells at our lines, which it is believed the enemy will not attempt to pass, and will enable us to subtract most of our infantry protection from our batteries of artillery for service in the field.

1st February1864, , Private James Lick, 25th., Wisconsin Infantry, Company C, while watering ambulance horses on board the H. Choteau, accidentally fell overboard and was lost in the Mississippi River.

February 2, 1864, Private George W. Louthain, 25th., Wisconsin Infantry, Company I, shot by accidental discharge of his gun while falling in company for line of march at Little Chunky Creek, Mississippi.

October 7, 1864, John Luckmeyer, 5th., New Jersey Infantry Co. D., was (accidentally); wounded.

July 12, 1864, During this day Sergeant (?) Delay 3rd., Iowa, Cavalry Co. I., while laying down the fence for his squadron, was accidentally wounded in the leg.
May have been Reuben Delay.

September 1863, Captain (?), Boswell, Illinois regiment, who had been acting major, performed his duty well until the morning of the 19th, when he was accidentally wounded and retired from the field.
May have been Andrew J. Boswell, Company F. of the 44th. Infantry.

September 17, 1862, Private (?), Drimer was accidentally wounded in the hand by a piece of friction-primer.
No record can be found on him on him on at any regiments, name may be in error.

Wednesday, February 24, 2010

John T. Anderson & James D. Barnes, M. S. M.

I put up this page be cause I found John T. Anderson and James D. Barnes very interesting men, and the report on them sound like it came out of scene of a movie. I tried to find more about them but was unsuccessful. I would like to hear from any of my readers who can shed some light on them. My address can be found in my profile. Please state the title of this page, when answering.

Numbers 2. Report of Colonel John F. Philips, Seventh Missouri State Militia Cavalry.

Camp Grover, near Warrensburg, Mo., July 14, 1864.

CAPTAIN: I have the honor to report that, in obedience to orders received through sub- district headquarters, on the night of the 9th instant I sent Major Houts, of my command, with 150 men, northwest of this place, with instructions to scout the country thoroughly. They went twenty- five miles, and then turning north struck the Missouri River at Wellington. In this march they discovered abundant signs of the presence of guerrillas. This country is a safe covert for these outlaws. It is a complete jungle and a perfect solitude, the adjacent country to the Sni affording forage and rations. Arriving at Wellington about 10 a. m. on Sunday morning, Major Houts learned from a reliable contraband that two guerrillas had been in this town that morning, and her opinion was they had gone to a church- Warder's Church- distant two miles, where a Hardshell was in the habit of preaching to the "Brushers" the unsearchable riches for good whisky and guerrilla warfare. The major, with accustomed promptness, at once detached about fifty men, under command of the intrepid and cool- headed Captain Henslee, Company L, and sent him to this church.

The force approached this church by a narrow road, having to cross a bridge within twenty paces of the building an ascend avery abrupt bank. The captain took the precaution to send forward Sergeant Brassfield with six men, with instructions to dash at all hazards over this bridge up the hill, and passing the church to occupy a position beyond, with a view of intercepting fugitives, and at the same time, by attracting the attention of the congregation, to make a diversion in favor of the main column. The guerrillas were then seven or eight in number, beside some outpost pickets on the Lexington road. The cry of "Feds!" thundered from the audience, and the worthy pastor, who was in the midst of a fervent supplication, found his flock greatly demoralized, and concluded it wasn't worth while to pray any longer under the circumstances.

The guerrillas were on the alert, some at their horses, some in the church, and one, who was to be married- perhaps that very day- to the pastor's daughter, was standing at the window, making love to his inamorata. The guerrillas as quick as thought saw their peril, and with drawn revolvers they began earnest work, with a nerve and determination worthy of a better cause. The captain's whole force was thrown into the work. The women and children screamed with terror, and, rushing wildly from the church, exhibited a method in their madness by throwing themselves in front of the rebel outlaws. Captain H., whose presence of mind is equaled only by his gallantry, rode out an commanded the women to "squat."

They obeyed the summons, and the work of death went bravely on. Five bushwhackers were killed outright, the sixth mortally wounded, and one or two, despite all vigilance, made their escape amid the furor and confusion. Wilhite and Estes were numbered among the slain. These were noted and desperate fellows, and their crimes are as back and infamous as they are numerous. Two horses and equipments were captured by us; five or six Colt navy revolvers. One man, Corporal Cozad, Company L, was wounded in heel and left at Lexington. One horse and equipments lost, belonging to Private James D. Barnes, Company D.

Justice to merit requires me to mention the names of Privates John T. Anderson, Company L, and James D. Barnes, Company D. Anderson was one of the advance who passed by the church. He received three shots through his clothes,one knocking the skin off his nose and one striking the pistol in his hand. He rode right in the midst of the scoundrels, and with great coolness and precision shot right and left, emptying twelve barrels and loading four more, all the while directing the movements of other soldiers around him. Anderson was badly wounded a year ago in a hand to hand fight with Livingston, in Southwest Missouri. Barnes, discovering one of the bushwhackers making his escape, singled him out, charged on him, discharging his rifle flung it aside, and with drawn pistol spurred forward, chasing for half a mile the rebel who was firing back at him; Barnes holding his fire until he drew up on his game, was just in the act of shooting at short range when his horse fell headlong, precipitating the rider over his head with a fearful fall. The horse recovered and ran away after the guerrilla, carrying equipments, &c., all of which was the private property of the soldier, and is lost. Barnes is a mere boy and quite small, but is as bold and dashing a trooper as ever looked an enemy in the face.

From Wellington, Major Houts scoured the country to Lexington, from there to Columbus, Johnson County. Here he ran onto six or seven guerrillas who fled at first fire, and being well mounted, and our horse greatly jaded, they outran us and escaped. The command returned to camp yesterday, 13th instant. Number of miles traveled, 175.

I am, captain, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
Colonel Seventh Cavalry Missouri State Militia.

Tuesday, February 23, 2010

Fighting Hand To Hand.

On the battle field war can be a impersonal thing, you run across the field firing as you go stepping over the died or dieing, with your eyes fix on your goal, hoping you make it before yourself is killed. At these times one has no time to think of his personal feelings about the war. All he is hoping is that he will survive one more day. One could argue how can war not be personal. True one may have some personal feeling about war, a loss of a father or brother or maybe his home has been destroyed, but on the battle field things are different. The battle field is a very impersonal place, you fire into a mass of men then run then fire again and again till you reach the other side. For those who fire the cannon long distances its very impersonal, for they can not see the faces of those being killed.

But in the heat of battle sometimes it can get very personal, he may come face to face with the enemy and have to fight for his life hand to hand, now the war has become very personal, there is nothing more personal then to have to look into another mans eyes as you fight for your life and know you must win at all costs. So it was with these men listed here all fought hand to hand and won, if you can call killing another man winning.

The Appomattox campaign.

Corpl. Louis W. Hardwick, Company G, Thirty-eighth Wisconsin Volunteers, for conspicuous gallantry before Petersburg, Va., April 2, 1865, when he was severely wounded in a hand-to-hand conflict.

Sergt. William Wick, Company D, First Michigan Sharpshooters, was the first to enter the enemy's works in the attack of April 2, 1865, before Petersburg, Va., and engaged in a hand-to-hand conflict with the enemy.

Battles at Spring Hill and Franklin, Tenn., on the 29th and 30th of November, 1864.
Twenty-fourth Ohio.

Christian M. Gowing, Twenty-fourth Ohio, company H., who had just received promotion from sergeant, distinguished himself upon that occasion in a hand-to-handed counter with a stalwart form who had crossed our works, but soon was made to bite the dust. To give the exact number of prisoners captured would be a matter impossible.

The Richmond campaign.

I wish to call your attention to the braver displayed by Sergt. Alonzo Woodruff and Corpl. John M. Howard. They were posted on the extreme left of the line as the enemy passed our left flank. After discharging their rifles and being unable to reload Corporal Howard ran and caught one of the enemy who seemed to be leading that part of the line. He being overpowered and receiving a severe wound through both legs, Sergeant Woodruff went to his assistance. Clubbing his rifle, had a desperate hand-to-hand encounter, but succeeded in getting Corporal Howard away, and both succeeded in making their escape.

Third Colorado Cavalry, in the engagement with the Indians on Sand Creek, forty miles north of Fort Lyon, Colo. Ter., November 29, 1864.

Captain Talbot, of Company M, fell severely wounded while bravely leading his men in a charge on a body of Indians who had taken refuge under the banks on the north side of the creek. Here a terrible hand-to-hand encounter ensued between the Indians and Captain Talbot's men and others who had rushed forward to their aid, the Indians trying to secure the scalp of Captain Talbot. I think the hardest fighting of the day occurred at this point, some of our men fighting with clubbed muskets, the First and Third Colorado Regiments fighting side by side, each trying to excel in bravery and each ambitious to kill at least one Indian.

Colonel Edward M. C McCook, Second Indiana Cavalry, commanding First Cavalry Division, Department of the Cumberland.

I have to note among the casualties of the day the severe and dangerous wounding of Captain W. W. La Grange, First Wisconsin Cavalry, who fell while leading his men in a desperate hand-to-hand fight. He was a young officer of distinguished bravery and great promise.

The Gettysburg Campaign.

The Fourth Michigan and Sixty-second Pennsylvania had become mixed up with the enemy, and many hand-to-hand conflicts occurred. Colonel Jeffords, the gallant commander of the Fourth Michigan, was thrust through with a bayonet in a contest over his colors.

John H. Morgan, C. S. Army, commanding expedition.
Morgan second Kentucky Raid.

I have also to report that the Federal colonel, [Dennis J.] Halisy, of the Sixth Kentucky Cavalry, commanding brigade, while engaged in picking up some stragglers of mine, was killed in a hand-to-hand conflict by Lieutenant [George B.] Eastin, of my command, and a lieutenant accompanying him was captured. The Federal forces are now moving down upon me. They left Lebanon this afternoon. I leave early to-morrow morning.

Second Manassas.

A number of the enemy's dead were left upon the field. Colonel Brodhead, of the First Michigan, was mortally wounded in a hand-to-hand encounter with Lieutenant [Lewis] Harman, adjutant of the Twelfth Virginia Cavalry.

Second Manassas.

I regret to have to report that in this later part of the day, particularly in the last attack of the enemy, we lost many of our most gallant officers and men. Captain Barksdale fell mortally wounded, and Sergeant Smith, after distinguishing himself by his gallantry during the whole day, at last fell in a hand-to-hand encounter with the enemy.

Union Letters.

Sergt. Leander A. Wilkins, Company H, Ninth New Hampshire Volunteers, recaptured and brought off the field the colors of the Twenty-first Massachusetts Volunteers at Petersburg July 30, 1864, after a hand-to-hand encounter. Present.

Private Thomas Robinson, Company H, Eighty-first Pennsylvania Volunteers, captured the colors of an unknown regiment at Spotsylvania May 12, 1864, after a desperate hand-to-hand conflict. now absent, wounded.

Lexington, Ky., January 29, 1865.
Acting Assistant Adjutant-General, District of Kentucky.

SIR: I have the honor to inform you that the forces under my command are doing good work. Information just received from Adjutant-General Lindsey reports a fight between a company of Fifty-fourth Kentucky Volunteers and a band of guerrillas under the notorious Dick Taylor, the same band that killed the negroes a few days since. Lieutenant Moore and Taylor had a hand-to-hand fight in which Moore was severely cut with a bowie knife and Taylor killed. One other guerrilla was killed and the rest routed.

Mobile Bay Campaign, Wilson Raid.

Sergt. John Wall, guidon bearer, of Company K, was also admirable. His company charged the line hand to hand with the rebels and this sergeant was shot in the bridle hand, the ball also striking deep into the lance of the guidon. He became the target for a line of muskets. He, however, maintained his place with the company, and, though thus wounded, captured a rebel officer in the heat of the battle.

Report of Lieutenant Colonel John M. Crebs, Eighty-seventh Illinois Infantry. HDQRS, EIGHTY-SEVENTH Regiment ILLINOIS VET. VOL. INFTY., Helena, Ark., February 14, 1865.

A Colt army revolver, captured in the skirmish on Sunday near Madison, was before that day unused, and the man upon whom it was captured admits he obtained it but a few days before from Memphis. I respectfully request that Private Hutson A. Keith, of Company I, who captured it in a hand-to-hand fight, and for his general good conduct, having in the last six months in the same way captured two other prisoners and killed in honorable fight a lieutenant in the rebel service, as a mark of commendation, may be permitted to retain the same as private property.

In the Field, near Lynch's Creek, S. C., February 26, 1865.

Corpl. Elijah G. Davis, Company I, Eighty-first Ohio Volunteers, with forage detail, who distinguished himself by refusing to surrender when attacked by four rebels, and fought hand to hand with them until he received seven wounds, and finally escaped death on the spot by the assistance of a comrade. His wounds, it is thought, will not prove fatal, and consist mainly of saber cuts.

Recommendations for promotion.

Major Thomas T. Taylor, Forty-seventh Ohio Veteran Infantry, to be brevet lieutenant-colonel for gallantry in the assault on Fort McAllister, December 13, 1864, and for a severe wound received in a hand to hand combat at that assault.

April 10, 1865.

CAPTAIN: In compliance with orders, I have the honor to make the following report of the part taken by the One hundred and tenth Ohio Volunteers in the assault of Sunday, April 2, 1865, upon the enemy's works in front of Petersburg, Va.

Corpl. Calvin M. Espy, in a hand-to-hand combat, overpowered two rebels who refused to surrender to him. A great many others performed deeds of a similar character, but to mention all would occupy too much space.

Numbers 140. Report of Lieutenant Colonel Joseph C. Hill, Sixth Maryland Infantry.
April 16, 1865.

Private Alexander Burleigh, Company B, for shooting down a rebel engaged in hand-to-hand combat with Captain John J. Bradshaw.

Appomattox Campaign.

First Lieutenant Nathaniel Burgess, mortally wounded in a hand-to-hand conflict in the battery.

Numbers 18. Gravelly Springs, February 24, 1865.

Captain Joseph C. Boyer, Twelfth Tennessee Cavalry, for gallantry in hand-to-hand fight on the night of the 16th of December, 1864, resulting in the capture of his opponent, Brigadier-General Rucker, of the Confederate army.

Near Huntsville, Ala., February 10, 1865.

SIR: I have the honor to report that the bearer, First Sergt. Alfred Ransbottom, Company K, Ninety-seventh Regiment Ohio Volunteer Infantry, captured the accompanying rebel battle-flag at the battle of Franklin, Tenn., on the 30th day of November, 1864. The incidents connected with its capture are as follows: Our troops occupied a temporary line of works south of Franklin, Tenn., which was frequently assaulted by the enemy. This regiment took a very important part in the conflict, repelling the attack in every instance. The enemy kept up an incessant fire, and charged our line frequently until after night-fall, when volunteers were called for to pass through a gap in our works on the Columbia pike that they might enfilade the enemy and capture a portion of their storming party. Sergeant Ransbottom was among the first to volunteer to execute this perilous task, and as the contest became hand-to-hand he wrested the flag from the hands of the rebel color-bearer and carried it from the field in triumph as a trophy of one of the most hotly contested battles of the war. Such acts of noble daring are seldom equaled and rarely surpassed. I therefore earnestly desire that the military authorities may properly appreciate his personal gallantry.

September 27, 1864.

CAPTAIN: I have the honor to forward a report of the operations of this command during the recent engagements from September 19 to date, inclusive

Private David Robinson, Company B, One hundred and fifty-first New York Volunteers, fought desperately hand to hand with the enemy over a gun, being knocked down with the butt of a musket. He, however, succeeded in killing his opponent.

Third Colorado Cavalry.

Private McFarland was killed in a hand-to-hand engagement. But like true soldiers the boys stood their ground, killing 5 Indians and wounding several others.


Captain Levant C. Rhines commanding, was ordered to charge upon the angle of the enemy's works, which they did in most gallant style, capturing the works, with 3 officers, 86 enlisted men, and a stand of colors, which were sent to the rear. The enemy, however, were not disposed to yield the point and soon returned to the fight, which now became a fierce hand-to-hand conflict, in which Captain Rhines, who had displayed the greatest gallantry, lost his life