Thursday, February 13, 2014

Civil War; Females Unfit as Nurses.

American Medical Times.
Volume 3., 1861, p. 30.

Our women appear to have become almost wild on the subject of hospital nursing. We honor them for their sympathy and humanity. Nevertheless, a man who has had experience with women nurses among male surgical cases, cannot shut his eyes to the fact that they, with the best intentions in the world, are frequently a useless annoyance.

Cases are continually occurring in male surgical wards of such a character as require strong arms, and attentions which any reasonable medical man is loth to exact from female nurses. Imagine a delicate refined woman assisting a rough soldier to the close-stool, or supplying him with a bed-pan, or adjusting the knots on a T-baridage employed in retaining a catheter in position, or a dozen offices of a like character which one would hesitate long before asking a female nurse to perform, but which are frequently and continually necessary in a military hospital. Besides this, women, as a rule, have not the physical strength necessary.

For example : a man having gunshot wounds of grave severity affecting the lower extremities, with perhaps incontinence of urine, or diarrhoea, would not improbably be attacked with bed-sores if not kept scrupulously clean. Should the soft parts of the back begin to ulcerate, local attention becomes doubly necessary. The patient, under these circumstances, requires often to be lifted up carefully,
and bodily, so as not to alter the comparative position of his limbs to the body. To do this properly, at least four strong men are required, who, stationed two at the shoulders and two at the hips (one hand from each lower assistant steadying the thigh and leg of that side), can thus raise the man steadily and carefully. A fifth would not be out of place in supporting the feet, while the medical attendant washes the excoriated parts, applies the needed dressings, and throw s upon the surface of the bod a clean sheet

Women, in our humble opinion, are utterly and decidedly unfit for such service. They can be used, however, as the regular administrators of the prescribed medicines, and in delicate, soothing attentions which are always so grateful to the sick, and which at the same time none know so well how to give, as do noble, sensible, tender-hearted women.

But as hospital nurses for wounded men, they are by nature, education, and strength totally unfitted, i. e. when we consider all the duties surgical nurses are called upon to perform. In conclusion it may be well to state that a surgeon on duty with troops, by showing proper interest in the men, without allowing himself to be humbugged by them, will gain their affection as well as respect. S.G.

Wednesday, February 12, 2014

James McClellan & Lawrence Glynn.

New Jersey State Records.

James McClellan, private, Co. H., 1St., New Jersey Cavalry.  Enlisted August 27, 1861, mustered in August 27, 1861, for three years.  Died at camp Custis, Virginia, February 25, 1862, of wounds received when on picket.

American Medical Times, 1862, Vol. 4., p. 205.

James McClellan, private, Co. H., 1St., New Jersey Cavalry, while patrolling the Richmond road beyond Pohick run, in advance of our pickets, about 7 A. M., February 24, 1862, was wounded from an ambuscade, the ball entering the body an inch to the right of the spine, in the vicinity of the kidney, died four hours later.

New York State Records.
New York 37th., Infantry.

GLYNN, LAWRENCE.—Age, 19 years. Enlisted, May 11,1861, at New York city, to serve two years; mustered in as private, Co. B, June 7, 1861; killed in action, February 24, 1862, at Mason's Neck, Va.

American Medical Times, 1862, Vol. 4., p. 205.
Lawrence Glynn, Co. B., received his death wound February 24, 1862, in a skirmish with the enemy near Colchester on the Occoquam Creek.  He lived only a few minutes.  

John Mallon, 37th., New York, Infantry.

New York State Records.
New York 37th., Infantry.

MALLEN, "MALLON" JOHN.—Age, 31 years. Enlisted, May 16, 1861, at New York city, to serve two years; mustered in as private, Co. G, June 7,1861; died, January 29, 1862, of wounds received at Occoquan, Va.

Authors note.  I believe they were talking about Occoquan river, which is in Fairfax county Virginia.
In the next piece of information you will see he was wounded in a town and taken to another town and both towns are near the Occoquan river.

American Medical Times, 1862.

John Mallon, private, Company G., 37th., New York Volunteers, was wounded in a midnight attack on the enemy at Colchester, Virginia, on January 27, 1862.  Though considerably shocked, he was still able to assist his comrades to batter in the door of the house occupied by the enemy, when he sank exhausted.  He was conveyed on horseback seven miles to the village of Acotink, Virginia, where he was attended to, died sixteen days later.

Medical History of New York Soldiers.

Authors note.  Although there are errors on some the names and dates they are the same person.
State New York Records.

WHEAT, CHARLES D.—Age, 21 years. Enlisted, July 16, 1863, at Owego; mustered in as private, Co. B, August 28, 1863, to serve three years; deserted, January 15, 1865, from hospital, at York, Pa.

Medical and Surgical History of the Rebellion.

Charles D. Wheat, private, Co. B., New York Cavalry, Age 18 years.  New Market, May 16, 1864.  Sabre wound of the abdomen.  Treated in Harrisburg and New York hospitals.  Furloughed, and not returning reported a deserter on December 30, 1864.

State New York Records.

HALL, BENJAMIN .W.—Age, 40 years. Enlisted at Potsdam, to serve three years, and mustered in as private, Co. H, December 16, 1861; wounded in action, May 31, 1862, at Fair Oaks, Va..; discharged for disability, April 29, 1863, at New Berne, N. C.

Medical and Surgical History of the Rebellion.
CASE 95. Private B. W. Hall, Co. H, 92d New York, received a lacerated wound of the abdomen, by a fragment of shell, at Fair Oaks, May 31, 1862. The wound was dressed at the field hospital On June 7th, the patient was transferred to Knight Hospital, New Haven, whence he was discharged from service on April 29, 1863, on account of " hernia from wound." Pension Examiner S. C. Wait, "in a report dated February, 1868, states : " the missile struck the abdomen just inside of Poupnrt's ligament, at the upper or inner inguinal ring, causing the loss of a portion of the muscular and ligamentous covering of the abdomen, letting the bowels out, and producing traumatic hernia. The tumor under the skin is very large. He wears a truss and a wide strap around him all the time to keep the bowels, etc., in. While walking, he rotates the left thigh inwardly and has to keep the left leg forward of the other. Locomotion is very difficult and embarrassing. His disability is greater than the loss of a leg, and is permanent in its present degree."
State New York Records.
TIFFANY, JARED.—Age, 43 years. Enlisted, November 7, 1862, at Buffalo; mustered in as private, December 17, 1862, to Serve three years; appointed farrier, date not stated; died of injuries from railroad cars, April 6, 1864, at Washington, D. C.
Medical and Surgical History of the Rebellion.

CASE 108. Private Gerald Tiffany, 27th New York Battery, aged 44 years, falling between the platforms of two railway cars, February 6, 18(54, was caught and squeezed between the buffers. The compression was antero posterior and over a space to the left of the umbilicus in front, and between the crest of the ilium and the ribs behind. There was eechymosis in the lumbar region, but the integuments were intact. The patient was conveyed to Kalorama Hospital. There was profound collapse, from which he slowly rallied. The abdomen was tender and swollen, the urine bloody. Emollient fomentations were applied and opiates were administered, and diluents and a light diet were prescribed. There were symptoms of peritonitis during the first week, but not of an aggravated character. The hsematuria persisted for three weeks, clots being passed occasionally molded of the form of the ureter. There was dulness of percussion over the left flank. The symptoms seemed to indicate rupture of the left kidney, with limited and probably extra-peritoneal urinary extravasation. Balsamic remedies were employed, and the bloody appearance of the urine at last disappeared; an albuminous condition of the secretion persisting. (Edema of the lower extremities supervened. With occasional amendments, the evidence of uraomic infection became more confirmed. The patient had several severe attacks of diarrhoea, and sank and died from the effects of his injuries on April 6, 1864. No autopsy.
State New York Records.
MYERS, DANIEL H.—Age, 21 years. Enlisted, August 30,1862, at Middletown, to serve three years; mustered in- as private, Co. G, September 27, 1862; promoted corporal, September 25, 1863; wounded in action, November 20, 1864, at Honey Hill, S. C.; died of his wounds, December 17, 1864, in hospital at Hilton Head, S. C.
Medical and Surgical History of the Rebellion.
CASE 114. Captain D. M. Myers, Co. G, 141th New York, was struck in the abdomen, at the engagement at Honey Hill, South Carolina, November 30, 1864, by a spent cannon ball. There was no external injury; but collapse, followed by nausea and vomiting, tenderness and tension of the abdomen, and bloody stools, indicated serious internal mischief. This officer was conveyed to the hospital at Hilton Head. Symptoms of traumatic peritonitis were combated by opium and emollient fomentations. He died on December 17, 1864. No autopsy.

State New York Records.

BISHOP, ISRAEL.—Age, 19 years. Enlisted, January 30,1864, at Glenville; mustered in as private, Co. B, February 1, 1864, to serve three years; wounded, date not stated; died of such wounds, June 3, 1864, at Regimental Hospital, Cold Harbor, Va.

Medical and Surgical History of the Rebellion.
CASE 120. Private I. Bishop, 50th New York Engineers, was struck in the abdomen on June 4, 1864, at the battle of Cold Harbor, by a large fragment of shell. Collapse was immediate and intense, and reaction was slowly brought about by the administration of diffusible stimulants, the application of external warmth, with friction of the surface of the extremities Surgeon C. N. Hewitt, 50th New York, reports that there was excessive tenderness, with meteorism, as noon as reaction was established. Opium was freely administered, and warm cataplasms were applied over the abdomen. The patient suffering acutely, lingered for nearly forty-eight hours, and died on June 6, 1864. A large rent, witk gangrenous edges, appeared in the jejunum. Freces and a small amount of semi-fluid blood were found in the peritoneal cavity. 
State New York Records.
HOAR, JOHN.—Age, 18 years. Enlisted, August 27, 1862, at Middletown, to serve three years; mustered in as private, Co.G, September 27, 1862; mustered out with company, June 25, 1865, at Hilton Head, S. C.
Medical and Surgical History of the Rebellion.
CASES 121.  Private J. Hoar, Co. G, 144th New York, aged 22 years, wounded at White Plains, July 24, 1863.  Shot wound of right foot; admitted into Douglas Hospital, Washington; haemorrhage to the extent of six ounces occurred from the metatarsal artery on August 1st. Assistant Surgeon W. Thomson, U. S. A., ligated the anterior tibial artery in the continuity at the instep and the posterior tibial behind the malleolus. The wounds healed well, and the patient was returned to duty from Central Park Hospital, New York, April 11, 1864. He is not a pensioner. 
State New York Records.
Murphy Martin-Age 32 years.  Enlisted, January 1, 1864, at Clymer; mustered in as a private Co. D., January 1, 1864, to serve three years; Killed June 3, 1864, at Cold Harbor, Va.
Medical and Surgical History of the Rebellion.
CASE 198. Private M. Murphy, Co. D, 8th New York Heavy Artillery, was wounded at Cold Harbor, June 3, 1864, by a conoidal ball. He was taken to the field hospital of the 2d division, Second Corps, where Surgeon J. F. Dyer, 19th Massachusetts, records : "Shot fracture of the right hip joint and wound of both shoulders." He died June 6, 1864. The cause of death is given on the burial records as "shot wound of bowels."
State New York Records.
FULTON, ISAAC —Age, 18 years. Enlisted, January 26, 1864, at Claverack; mustered in as private, Co. I, January 26, 1864, to serve three years; wounded, date not stated; died of wounds, October
1,1864, at City Point, Va.
Medical and Surgical History of the Rebellion.
CASE 279. Private Isaac C. Fulton, Co. I, 4th New York Heavy Artillery, was wounded, on October 1, 1864, in the trenches before Petersburg, by a fragment of shell, which shattered the upper extremity of his left femur and lacerated the soft tissues on the outside of the thigh, without, however, implicating any important vessels or nerves. He was immediately carried to the Second Corps field hospital, under the charge of Surgeon F. F. Burmeister, 69th Pennsylvania, and a consultation was held, at which it was determined that an amputation at the hip joint was the only resource that could possibly preserve life. The wounded man was, therefore, immediately placed under the influence of chloroform, and Surgeon J. W. Wishart, 140th Pennsylvania, did the operation. The ordinary method by antero-posterior flaps formed by transfixion was employed. The operation was rapidly performed and but a trifling quantity of blood was lost. The patient survived the shock of the injury and operation but a few hours, and died at City Point, October 1, 1864.
State New York Records.
RUGG, HENRY F.—Age, 36 yeans. Enlisted, September 20,1861, at Carthage; mustered in as private, Co. H, October 15,1861, to serve three years; re-enlisted', November 12;, 1863; wounded,
June 6,1864, at Cold Harbor, Va.; appointed sergeant, date not stated; discharged for disability, September 11, 1866, at Ira Harris United States Army General Hospital, Albany, N. Y.
Medical and Surgical History of the Rebellion.
CASE 350. Private H. F. Rugg, Co. H, 2d New York Heavy Artillery; wounded at Cold Harbor, June 3, 1864; a minie ball passed through the middle third of the right thigh, injuring the bone and causing necrosis. Circular amputation of the thigh at the upper third was successfully performed at Blairsville, Pennsylvania, on January 24, 1866, by Drs. St. Clair and T. M. Laney. The pensioner was paid in 1878.
State New York Records.
HIGGINS, JOHN.—Age, 18 years. Enlisted, September 6, 1862, at Hudson, to serve three years; mustered in as corporal, Co.  A, November 1,1862; wounded in action, April 14,1.863, at Irish
Bend, La.; died of his wounds, May 18,1863, at New Orleans, La.
Medical and Surgical History of the Rebellion.
CASE 360. Corporal J. Higgins, Co. A, 159th New York, aged 19 years, was wounded at Irish Bend, April 14, 1863. Surgeon T. B. Reed, U. S. V., reported his admission to the field hospital of the 4th division, Nineteenth Corps, with a "shot wound of leg." Assistant Surgeon P. S. Conner, U. S. A., contributed the pathological specimen represented in the annexed wood-cuts (FlGS. 132, 133), with the following history: "The patient entered University Hospital, New Orleans, April 17, 1863. Upon examination he was found to have a wound just below and external to the head of the left fibula, the track of the ball being upward and inward. The missile had not been extracted nor could it be detected. There being no evidence of fracture, the case was regarded as a simple flesh wound and treated accordingly. On the seventh day after admission haemorrhage supervened, but upon cutting down through the popliteal space no bleeding vessel could be detected, and no further hemorrhage occurred. On passing the finger along the track of the wound the superior margin of a cavity was felt, which appeared to be a portion of the femur partially split off and thrown backward. There being no displacement or other evidence of fracture extending entirely across the shaft, and the man being unable to give any account of his position at the time of receiving the injury, it was concluded that the ball had lodged in the femur. Though much prostrated by the loss of blood the patient was rallied by careful nursing. As a precautionary measure the limb was placed in an anterior splint after a few days, from which time the case progressed quite favorably until May 15th, when rigors came on and the patient failed rapidly. He died on May 18, 1863, thirty-five days after being wounded. At the post-mortem examination no inflammation of the knee joint was discovered, but little pus at the seat of the injury, and no abscesses in the lungs or liver. An inspection of the specimen indicates that the leg must have been strongly flexed on the thigh at the time the man was shot." The specimen shows longitudinal fractures on the anterior surface of the bone, with some periosteal thickening, and the ball lodged in the medullary canal.

Monday, February 10, 2014

Francis "Frank" E. Lovejoy.

Push to enlarge.
Francis E. Lovejoy.

Was born in Sheawassee county, State of Michigan. August 26, 1843, died at Minneapolis, Minn., December 23. 1870. He enlisted in Company A, Fourt
h Illinois Cavalry, August 14, 1862, which company was then doing duty as General Grant's escort. During his connection with this company he was detailed as clerk at General Grant's headquarters, in which' capacity he served with marked ability.

His conscientious application to duty, intelligence and gentlemanly deportment attracted the attention of General Grant, who advanced him to one of the most responsible positions in his clerical force. He was commissioned First Lieutenant and Adjutant of the Third U. S. Colored Cavalry, October 18, 1863, being recommended for the position by General Grant, and a more fitting selection could not have been made.

His experience as clerk at General Grant's headquarters, where he acquired a thorough knowledge of the "army red tape" eminently fitted him for the position, which he filled with rare ability until failing health compelled him to quit the service. Of a frail constitution, the hardships and exposures of camp life overtaxed his powers of endurance, marking him for one of its victims. He resigned his commission November 12, 1864, and returned to his home in Michigan, taking with him the love and respect of all who knew him.

Isaac Cooper, Mass., 5th., Colored Cavalry.

Isaac Cooper, Drum Major, 5th., Massachusetts Colored Cavalry, Co. E., Age 21, Height 5. feet 9. inches, Complexion Black, Eyes Black, Hair Black, Born Goochland Virginia, Occupation Barber.

Enlisted January 20, 1864 at Boston, for 3 years.  Mustered in February 10, 1864, at Readville Massachusetts.  Deserted July 5-6, 1864, at Pt. Lookout, Maryland.  Arrested February 24, 1865 Concord New Hampshire.

Arrested for Desertion.
In Cooper's statement says he was in Duty Dept., but acting as Drum Major, carried the colors at his own request.  Said to have thrown them away at Petersburg, and escaped to the rear. For this he was court martialed and sentenced to be shot. This report is made by the Sergeant Major of his regiment, but is denied by Cooper.
"He has shown protection papers and claims to be a citizen of Montreal, Canada.  By letters found in his possession it is believed that he has been regularly engaged in the business of country jumping.  He was arrested at the house of and in company with another deserter in Concord, New Hampshire.  Has attempted to escape from arrest by running from the guard.  Is intelligent rogue can cannot be trusted."  

Sunday, February 09, 2014

Jacob Kimm, 152nd., New York, Infantry.

New York State Records.
Authors Note; his last name was misspelled.

KINNER, JACOB,—Age, 19 years. Enlisted, September 6, 1862, at Litchfield, to serve three years; mustered in as private, Co.E, October 15, 1862; wounded in action, May 31, 1864, at Gaines Hill, Va.; discharged for disability, January 30, 1865, at Washington, D. C,

American Journal of the Medical Sciences
volume 50, p.20.
Case I. Gunshot icound of the left knee-joint with contusion of the internal condyle of the femur ; ecchijmosis of bruised osseous tissue; traumatic arthritis; secondary amputation of the thigh; recovery. 

Private Jacob Kimm, Co. E, 152d New York Vols., aged 21 years, and of good constitution, was admitted to Stanton General Hospital, June 4th, 1864, from the 'field, having received a severe gunshot wound of the left knee-joint, four days previously, May 31st, near Salem Church, Va.  A rifle ball penetrated' that joint from the front. There was no orifice of exit. He said the ball had not been extracted, and it was therefore supposed to be still lodged somewhere on the inside.

June 6. The knee is much swelled, painful, hot, and tender. The periarticular tissues are thickened by serous infiltration. The thigh, also, is moderately swelled ; and the femoral tumefaction is increasing from day to day in spite of quietude, and a free application of ice to the inflamed parts. A thin and dirty looking pus mixed with synovia flows from the wound. On introducing my finger, the patient being etherized, the interior of the joint is readily explored in various directions, but without discovering the bullet or finding any comminution of the bone. His general condition is favourable. The constitutional disturbance (irritative fever) is but slight, having not yet been fully developed. There being no prospect of saving the limb the thigh was amputated this day by the double-flap method.