Saturday, September 12, 2009

Things You Never Knew About The Navy.

This page is for the serious navy researcher, but even the less serious researcher may find this page very interesting. This page tells how a Frigate is made, and how many men it takes to run her. This page also gives information on what the navy men ate and the cloths thy wore and much more.

Important note. I have hundreds of pages at this site, when asking a question about this page or any other pages at this site, please give the ( Title of the page ), for without it I may not be able to help you. My address can be found in my profile.

The following information is so long I decided to give the links to the information, for if I was to put it all here it would take two pages just for this one report. By reading this report you could almost build a Frigate yourself.

Note. The pages will open small, but there is a enlarging box, just move your arrow around and it will pop up, just push on it.

Dimensions and sizes of materials for building a Frigate of forty-four guns, March 1794.


Now that the ship is built it well need a crew, it will take 400 hundred men to run a 44 gunner and as it will be out for a year it well need stores for that period of time.

Men for a 44 gunner.

Commander---$75, per month and 6, rations a day.
4. Lieutenants---$40, per month each----12, rations a day.
2. Lieutenant of Marines….$30, per month each----4, rations per day.
1. Sailing Master---$40,per month------2, rations per day.
2. Master’s Mates---$20, per month----2, rations per day.
8. Midshipmen---$19, per month-----8, rations per day.
1. Purser---$40, per month----2, rations per day.
1. Surgeon---$50, per month---2, rations per day.
2. Surgeons Mates---$30, per month----4, rations per day.
1. Clark----$25, per month---1, ration per day.
1. Carpenter---$20, per month-----2, rations per day.
2. Carpenter’s Mates---$19, per month---2, rations per day.
1. Boatswain---$20, per month----2, rations per day.
2. Boatswain Mates---$19, per month---2, rations per day.
1. Yeomen of gun room---$18, per month---1, ration per day.
1. Gunner---$20, per month----2, rations per day.
11. Quarter Gunners---$18, per month---1, ration per day.
1. Coxswain---___, per month----1, ration per day.
1. Sail maker---$20, per month---2, rations per day.
1. Copper---$18, per month----1, ration per day.
1. Steward---_____, per month---1, ration per day.
1. Armorer---____, per month---1, ration per day.
1. Master of arms----___, per month---1, ration per day.
1. Cook---____, per month---1, ration per day.
1. Chaplain---$40, per month---2, rations per day.
120. Able seamen---$17, per month.
150. Ordinary seamen---$12, per month.
30. Boys---$8, per month.
50. Marines, including Sergeants and Corporals.
Total cost per month---$74, 009.

Provisions for four hundred men for 12, months.

350. Barrels of beef.
310. Barrels of pork.
1,220. Gallons of molasses.
144. cwt. Of rice.
1,930. Pounds of butter.
15, 000. Pounds of cheese,
1,220. Pounds of candles.
1,730. Gallons of vinegar.
240. Bushels of beans.
8,650. Gallons of rum.
1,444. Pounds of soap.
53. Barrels of flour.
49. Barrels of Indian meal.
1,022. Cwt. Of bread.
145. Gallons lamp oil.
730. Bushels of potatoes.
177. Cwt. Of salt fish.
Total cost for 12, months $28,271.89.

Now that the ship has been built and the stores have been put on board and the crew is on board they will need uniforms, this list of clothing will be for the year of 1818.

1. Pea Jacket ( To serve two years )----2. Blue cloth jackets----2. Blue cloth trousers---2. White flannel shirts----2. White drawers ( under ware)----2. Pair yarn stockings----2. Black handkerchiefs----2. Duck frocks----2. Duck frocks trousers----4. Pair shoes----1. Mattress----2. Blankets----1. Hammock----1. Red vest----2. Hats.

While in a foreign stations it well be a necessity for purchasing slops ( cloths, uniforms), in winter they shall be: Blue jackets and trousers and red vest with yellow buttons with black hats. In summer the dress will be White jackets and trousers and vests.

Well now after all that work to get ready to sail they must be hungry, this menu will be from 1818, also.

Sunday: Half pound suet, 1 and a quarter pound Beef, Half pound flour, 14oz. Bread, 1oz. Sugar, Half pint Spirits.

Monday: 1pound pork, 14 oz. bread, 1oz. Sugar, Half pint peas, Half pint spirits.

Tuesday: 2oz. Cheese, 1 pound Beef, 14oz. Bread, 1 oz. Sugar, Half pint spirits.

Wednesday: 1 pound Pork, 14 oz. Bread, 1oz. Sugar, Half pint Rice, Half pint Spirits.

Thursday: Quarter pound of Suet, 1and a quarter pound Beef, Half pound Flour, 14 oz. Bread, 1 oz. sugar, Half pint Spirits.

Friday: 4 oz. Cheese, 14 oz. Bread, 2 oz. Butter, 1 oz. Sugar, Half pint Rice, Half pint Molasses, Half pint Spirits.

Saturday: 1 pound of Pork, 14 oz. Bread, 1 oz. Sugar, half pint Peas, Half pint Vineger, Half pint Spirits.
* 4 oz. Tea per week.

Ever wonder how many men it takes to run a ship? Well here is a list of a few.

A ship of war with 74 guns would take six hundred and fifty men to run.

A Frigate with 36, guns it takes three hundred and forty men.

A Frigate with 32, guns it takes Two hundred and sixty men.

A ship with 24 guns on the gun deck, with 6 or 8 guns on the quarter deck it takes Two hundred and twenty men.

A ship with 24, guns it takes One hundred and eighty men.

A vessel with 18 guns it takes One hundred and forty men.

A schooner no guns it takes seventy men.

A galley carries about twenty-eight men, ( ship propelled by oars or sails or both.)

A cutter with 10 guns it takes thirty-four men.

To build a frigate of 44 guns would have cost you $270,000.

To build a frigate of 36, would have cost you $218, 067.

I have the lists of the stores that was being stored in the naval station, although their to long to put here I will send a list on request. These list are very long and have just about anything you can think of on it. They list clothing, anchors, ropes, nails bolts and anything it takes to run a ship, the year 1821, The stations are:

Gosport Va.
Portsmouth N. H.
New York.
New Orleans.
Charleston S. C.
* Note for author Vol.1, p. 716-724, 1822, 788-797.

Those of you who are interested in the Surgeon’s of the navy these two links will give you the lists of the Medicines & Instruments they used and their cost, the year 1823.

Remember to open the enlarging box, to read these pages.

Friday, September 11, 2009

Ordinance and Stores OF The Army 1793--1825

This page is for the serious military researcher, but even the less serious researcher may find this very interesting. This page tells about what is stored in one army warehouse, and goes on to tell what the army was wearing and the cost. I tell what they ate, and in the end I will take you through all the steps it takes to make a musket.

Important note. I have hundreds of pages at this site, when asking a question about this page or any other pages at this site, please give the ( Title of the page ), for without it I may not be able to help you. My address can be found in my profile.

Returns of Ordinance and Military Stores deposited at Springfield, Massachusetts.

Brass Ordnance.

6 Pounders-----56.
3 Pounders-----10.


8 inch-----2.
8 inch unfinished---1.
5 and a half inch-----9.
5 and a half inch unfinished---1.
4 and a half inch cohorn and bed,---1.
Iron beds for 13 inch mortars,---4.

Traveling Carriages.

4 Pounders long,---5.
6 Pounders short,---28.
6 and a half inch howitzers, French,---2.

AMMUNITION, Shot Strapt.

9 Pounders---259.
6 Pounders---182.
4 Pounders---1,244.
3 Pounders---457.

Canisters Filled.

12 Pounders---344.
9 Pounders---449.
6 Pounders---368.
4 Pounders---554.
3 Pounders---683.

Quilted Grape.

9 Pounders---18.
4 Pounders---44.

Iron Shot.

24 Pounders---2,159.
18 Pounders---3,535.
6 Pounders---300.
4 Pounders---3,500.
3 Pounders---1,045.


8 inch---4,985.
5 and a half inch---5,829.


Half Barrels---22.
Musket cartridges---74,799.

Musket Ball.

Boxes, 100 lb. each---161.
Boxes 1 lb. ball---37.
Boxes grape shot, 2, 3, and 4 ounces---153.
Lead 211 bars---lb. 20,268.


24 Pounders---369.
12 Pounders---993.
9 Pounders---180.
6 Pounders---946.
4 Pounders---6,150.
3 Pounders---2,400.


24 Pounders---477.
12 Pounders---355.
6 Pounders---146.
4 Pounders---1.644.
3 Pounders---920.

Paper Cartridges.

18 Pounders---726.
12 Pounders---727.
6 Poundres---100.
4 Pounders---70.
3 Poundres---80.

Fuses Filled.

13 inch---2,171.
10 inch---978.
5 and a half inch---1,487.

Muskets, &c.

New French arms---6,678.
Old French arms---55.


Brass hilted---406.
Marine cutlasses---110.

Military Stores.

Ammunition wagons---2.
Ammunition Boxes---267.
Worms, of sorts---16.
Trail and common handspikes---186.
Kegs yellow paint, ground in oil---3.
Cask Spanish brown---1.
Cask red lead-1.
Gun worms---3,529.
Sword belt---1.
Bayonet belts---21.
Iron bottoms for grape---344.
Yards duck---8.
Bullet pouches, old---369.
Carbine rods, chests---2.
Gun, rods, chests---6.
Scales and weights, pairs---2.
Scales, without beams---1.
Tin end pieces for cartridge boxes---1,370.
Tin cases for cartridge boxes---298.
Cartridge boxes and belts---271.
Chests of cannon cartridge paper---7.
Tube boxes---38.
Fire hook, one---wt. lb. 80.
Turners’ tools, sets---1.
Beds for 13.inch mortars, unfinished---6.
Rammer heads, of sorts---161.
Sponges, for 4 pounders---29.
Portfire stocks---14.
Laboratory chests---1.
Tompions for 4 pounders---45.
Worms and ladles---6.
Rope, 3and a half inch, fathoms---10.
Copper hoops---lbs. 187.
Saitpetre, barrels---2 and a half.
Empty tubes---4,381.
Fuses, 13 inch, not fixed---1,184.
Copper ladles, sorts---48.
Emery, pounds---11.
Tin lanterns---5.
Buckles for pouches---649.
Clasps for pouches---73.
Fronts for pouches ---20.
Hooks for pouches---34.
Wheels for 4 pounders---28.
Wheels for 3 pounders---5.
Wheels for wagons---12.
Wheels for traveling forges---4.
Wheels partly made---9.
Carriage cheeks in the rough---47.
Wagon tops---2.
Wagon boxes---20.
Slowmatch, hhds.---2.
Chests of iron gun mounting--7
Cask tin---1.
Empty cases for 6 pounders---180.
Empty cases for 4 pounders---136.
Copper and laboratory kettles---1.
Large screws---3.
Large screw plates---3.
Brass gun mounting---169.
Brimstone, pounds---300.
Portfires, dozen---70.
Portfire moulds and drifts---1.
Gun locks, old---250.
Iron hooks and thimbles---14.
Iron chains---5.
Gun slings---21.
Drum sticks---1.
Iron stoves---2.
Iron pots---7.


Blacksmith’s bellows---1.
Beck irons---1.
Boring mill---1.
Limbers framed, not ironed---5.
Armorer’s tools, set---1.
Bench vices---5.

Damaged Stores.

Old cartridge boxes---12.
Jockey caps---20.
Powder, barrel---1.
Old. camp kettles---7.
Arm chests---67.
Armorer’s shop---1.
Blacksmith’s shop---1.
Harness maker’s shop---1.
Coal house---1.
Traveling forge unfinished---1.
Backs for traveling forges---14.

Note. I also have the return of the ordnance arms and stores for the following. If you would like a list just let me know, the year is 1793.

Harper’s Ferry.
West point.
Fort Rensselaer.
New London.
Fort Washington.
Fort Clair.
Fort Jefferson.
Fort Franklin.

Army Clothing and Food for 1790.


Each non-commissioned officer and soldier is allowed, annually, one suit of uniform clothes, as follows:

One coat.
One vest.
Two pairs woolen overalls.
Two pairs linen overalls.
One Hat.
Four shirts.
Four pairs of shoes.
Four pair of socks.
One stock.
One stock clasp.
One pair shoe buckles.
One blanket.


One pound of bread or flour.
One pound of beef or three-fourths of pork.
One gill of common rum.

To every 100 rations.
One quart salt.
Two quarts vinegar.
Two pounds of soap.
Two pounds of candles.

Clothing of the Military of 1813.

Clothing for the old Artillery.

One Hat…$1.
One coat…$6.64 and three-fourths.
Two pair overalls line $.92 and a half cents each.
One frock…..$1.57 and a half each.
Trousers….$1.15, each.
Gaiters…$.28 and three fourths cents each.
Four Shirts…..$1.42, cents each.
Stock and cockade….$8.43.
Eagle plume $.15 cents.

Dragoons clothing.

Coat….$5.96 and three fourths.
Two pair overalls line…..$.92 and a half, each
Two pair overalls woolen….$2.77 and three fourths, each.
Frock…..$1.57 and a half cents each.
Trousers….$1.15, each.
Gaiters…$.28 and three fourths cents each.
Four Shirts…..$1.42, cents each.
Stock and cockade….$8.43.
Eagle plume, say father $.15 cents.
One pair boots….$6.00.

Light Artillery clothing.

Coat….$5.96 and three fourths.
Two pair overalls line…..$.92 and a half, each
Two pair overalls woolen….$2.77 and three fourths, each.
Frock…..$1.57 and a half cents each.
Trousers….$1.15, each.
Gaiters…$.28 and three fourths cents each.
Four Shirts…..$1.42, cents each.
Stock and cockade….$8.43.
Eagle plume…. $.35 cents.

Rifle clothing.

Coat….$6.21 and three fourths.
Two green overalls, fringed…$2.77 and one fourth, each.
Two pair overalls woolen…$2.77 and one fourth, each.
Four Shirts…..$1.42, cents each.
Stock and cockade….$8.43.
Eagle plume say father… $.35 cents.
Rifle flock…..$5.68.

A list of the various operations in the manufacture of a musket, as now practised at the United States armory, Springfield, Massachusetts, 1825.

The barrel.

Cutting scalps, by water.
Drawing scalps, by water.
Rolling scalps, by water.
Welding barrel, by water.
Nut boring barrel, by water.
Counter boring barrel, by water
Smooth boring barrel, by water.
Turning barrel, by water.
Milling barrel, by water.
Drawing barrel, by water.
Breeching barrel, manual.
Proving barrel, manual.
Filing barrel, manual.
Studding barrel, manual;
Straightening barrel, manual.
Finish boring barrel, by water.
Drilling vents barrel, by water.
Polishing barrel, by water.
Browning barrel, manual.
Forging breech-pin, manual.
Milling breech-pin, by’ water.
Cutting screw-pin, manual.
Filing screw-pin, manual.


Forging bayonets, manual.
Tempering bayonets, manual.
Boring bayonet socket, by water:
Turning bayonet socket, by water.
Milling bayonet socket, by water.
Grinding bayonet blades, by water.
Grinding flutes, by water.
Cutting and fitting socket, manual.
Polishing bayonet, by water.
Browning bayonet, manual.


Drawing ramrods, by water.
Rounding ramrods, by water.
Heading ramrods, manual.
Tempering ramrods, manual.
Straightening ramrods, manual.
Grinding ramrods, by water.
Polishing ramrods, by water.
Cutting screw, manual.


Cutting upper band, water.
Welding upper band, manual.
Drilling upper band, water.
Sighting upper band, manual.
Filing upper band, manual.
Grinding upper band, water.
Polishing upper band, water.
Browning upper band, manual.

Middle bands.

Forging middle bands, manual.
Trimming middle bands, water.
Filing middle bands, manual.
Grinding middle bands, water.
Riveting swivel to middle band, manual.
Polishing swivel, water.
Browning swivel, manual.

Lower band.

Cutting lower band, water. Welding lower band, manual.
Filing lower band, manual.
Grinding lower band water.
Polishing lower band, water.
Browning lower band, manual.


Forging swivels, manual.
Trimming swivels, manual.
Punching swivels, manual.
Filing swivels, manual.
Turning swivels, water.
Polishing swivels, water.
Browning swivels, manual.


Forging guard plates, manual.
Trimming guard plates, water.
Filing guard plates, manual.
Drilling guard plates, water.
Countersinking guard plates, water.
Forging guard bows, manual.
Milling guard bows, water.
Filing guard’bows, manual.
Riveting guard bows, manual.
Grinding gaard, water.
Polishing guard, water.
Browning guard, manual.


Forging trigger, manual.
Trimming trigger, water.
Filing trigger, manual.
Polishing trigger, water.
Hardening trigger, manual.

Side plates.

Cutting side plates, water.
Filing side plates, manual.
Punching side plates, water.
Grinding side plates, water.
Polishing side plates, water.
Browning side plates, manual.

Band springs.

Forging band springs, manual.
fluting band springs, water.
Filing band springs, manual.
Polishing band springs, water.
Browning band springs, manual.

Breech plate.

Forging breech plate, manual.
Trimming breech plate, water.
Punching breech plate, water.
Countersinking breech plate, water.
Filing breech plate, manual.
Grinding breech plate, water.
Polishing breech plate, water.
Browning breech plate, manual.

Side strews.

Forging side screws, manual.
Turning heads side screws, water.
Slitting heads side screws, water.
Milling side screws, water.
Cutting screws, manual.
Hardening screws, manual.


Forging tang-pin, manual.
Slitting tang-pin, water.
Milling tang-pin, water.
Cutting screw tang-pin, manual.
Hardening screw tang-pin, manual.

Breech plate screws.

Forging breech plate screws, manual.
Slitting breech plate screws, water.
Milling breech plate screws, water.
Cutting screw breech plate, manual.
Hardening screw breech plate, manual.

Guard screws.

Forging guard screws, manual.
Slitting guard screws, water.
Milling guard screws, water.
Cutting guard screws, manual.
Hardening guard screws, manual.

Lock plate.

Forging lock plate, manual.
Grinding lock plate, water.
Drilling lock plate, water.
Trimming lock plate, water.
Filing lock plate, manual.


Forging hammer, manual.
Trimming hammer, water.
Drilling hammer, water.
Filing hammer, manual.

Brass pans.

Casting pans, manual.
Boring pans, water.
Filing pans, manual.
Fitting pans, manual.


Forging cock, manual.
Trimming cock, water.
Drilling cock, water.
Punching cock, water.
Filing cock, manual.


Forging tumbler, manual.
Milling tumbler, water.
Drilling tumbler, water.
Filing tumbler, manual.


Forging bridles, manual
Drilling bridles, water.
Milling bridles, water.
Filing bridles, manual.


Forging seers, manual.
Drilling seers, water.
Filing seers, manual.

Upper jaws.

Forging upper jaws, manual.
Trimming upper jaws, water.
Drilling upper jaws, water.
Filing upper jaws, manual.


Forging cock-pin, manual.
Milling cock-pin, water.
Slitting cock-pin, water.
Drilling cock-pin, water.
Cutting screw, water.


For set lock-pins, manual.
Slit set lock—pins, water.
Milling set lock-pins, water.
Cutting screw lock-pins, manual.
Polishing lock, water.
Hardening lock, manual.

Main spring.

Forging main spring, manual.
Drilling main spring, water.
Turning main spring, manual.
Tempering main spring, manual.
Filing main spring, manual.

Hammer spring.

Forging hammer spring, manual.
Drilling hammer spring, water.
Filing hammer spring, manual.
Turning hammer spring, manual.
Tempering hammer spring, manual.

Seer spring.

Forging seer spring, manual.
Drilling seer spring, water.
Filing seer spring, manual.
Turning seer spring, manual.
Tempering seer spring, manual.

Stocking musket.

Turning stock, water.
Boring for barrel, water.
Setting in the lock, water.
Fitting on the bands, water.
Fitting to the heel plate, water.
Finish stocking musket, manual.
Finishing musket, manual.
Drawing iron, water.
Drawing steel, water.

Thursday, September 10, 2009

They Were Descharged.

There maybe some additional information on some of these men. If you see a name of interests and would like to know if there is more information on a name, you can write me and I will help you all I can. My address can be found in my profile.

Important note. I have thousands of names at this site, when asking about a name from this page or any other pages at this site, please give the ( Title of the page ), for without it I may not be able to help you.

Colonel and Provost-Marshal.
WAR DEPARTMENT, Richmond, May 13, 1862.
Brigadier General JOHN H. WINDER, Richmond, Va.

SIR: You will dispose of the prisoners named as follows:

William Follyn, to be discharged upon taking the oath of allegiance and volunteering.

William Marsha, to be discharged upon taking oath of allegiance and volunteering.

William Cruikshanks, to be discharged upon taking the oath of allegiance.

John W. Cruikshanks, to be discharged, but he is subject to the conscription act.

William Martin, to be discharged upon taking the oath of allegiance.

Austin A. Rine, to be discharged upon taking the oath of allegiance.

J. F. Cutlip, to be discharged upon taking the oath of allegiance.

S. B. Cutlip, to be discharged upon taking the oath of allegiance and volunteering.

S. W. Cutler, to be discharged upon taking the oath of allegiance.

J. Douglas, to be discharged.

John Davis, to be discharged upon taking the oath of allegiance.

G. W. Miller, to be sent to General Lee; Wickham Dixon, to be discharged upon taking the oath of allegiance and to be employed as a shipbuilder.

J. Owen, to be discharged on taking the oath of allegiance and to be employed as a shipbuilder.

Samuel Trader, to be discharged on taking the oath of allegiance and to be employed as a shipbuilder.

J. W. Dixon, to be discharged on taking the oath of allegiance and to be employed as a shipbuilder.

Michael Dixon, to be discharged on taking the oath of allegiance.

William Gladstone, to be discharged on taking the oath of allegiance and to be employed as a carpenter or to volunteer.

John Monroe, to be discharged on taking the oath of allegiance.

Daniel Hunt, to be discharged on taking the oath of allegiance.

John Rowzie, to be discharged on taking the oath of allegiance.

Samuel T. Walker, to be discharged on taking the oath of allgience.

William P. Speer, to be discharged on taking the oath of allegiance and agreeing not to go to our lines or encampments.

C. White, to be discharged on taking the oath of allegiance.

W. P. Flood, to be discharged on taking the oath of allegiance.

James E. McCabe, to be discharged on taking the oath of allegiance.

WAR DEPARTMENT, Richmond, May 15, 1862.
Brigadier General JOHN H. WINDER,
Commanding Department of Henrico, Richmond, Va.
SIR: You will dispose of the prisoners named below as follows:

Burnaham Davis, to be discharged upon taking the oath of allegiance.

A. Heflin, to be discharged and employed as a carpenter if there be work for him.

E. Lambert, to be discharged and sent to Colonel Baldwin on taking the oath of alleignace and be permitted to join some regiment in Jackson's brigade.

James B. Lambert to be discharged upon taking the oath of allegiance.

Henry Yancey, to be discharged upon taking the oath of allegiance and pledging upon his parole of honor not to visit out frontier until the conflict is over.

WAR DEPARTMENT, Richmond, November 21, 1862.
Brigadier General J. H. WINDER, Commanding, &c.
SIR: Upon the recommendation of S. S. Baxter, esq., you are directed to dispose of the following citizen prisoners in the manner indicated: M. Radcliffe, to be discharged on taking the oath of allegiance and transportation home furnished him;

Ballard Trent, Eli Mason, to be discharged and sent home under the care of M. Radcliffe, and transportation home be furnished.

Pat. Tiernan, to be discharged on taking the oath of allegiance.

James Amsco (a boy), to be discharged.

Isaac Bays. -Says he was born in Fayette; moved to Boone, and moved back to Fayette last spring. Does not know for what he was arrested; was told all the men from that end of the county were to be moved. Says he had nothing to do with the Northern men or the Union men. Says he always held to the Southern side. Says he agreed to take care of the family and property of his brother-in-law if he would volunteer, which he did. Has now the family and property of his brother-in-law under his charge. Wanted to vote for secession, but his vote was counted out because since his return from Boone he had not lived long enough in Fayette to enable him to vote. I have no evidence about this man excpet his own. I recommend his discharge on taking the oath of allegiance.

Isaac Williams. -Says he was born in Giles, near Fayette. Lives in Fayette; arrested because it was reported he was a Union man. Says he voted against secession, but did not know then the Union was broken; has no learning. As soon as he heard the Union was broken he stuck to the South. Has not seenthe Northern army. Was opposed to the formation of a home guard. I have no evidence about this man other than his own examination, and if that be true he ought to be discharged. I therefore recommend his discharge on taking the oath of allegiance.

Stewart Armstrong. -Born in Greenbrier; moved to Fayette. Does not know for what he is arrested. Voted against secession, but when the State went out felt bound to sustain it. Opposed to the formation of a home guard. Had nothing to do with Northern army or Union men. Prisoner was proved by Mr. Alderson to be a man of good character. I recommend his discharge on taking the oath of allegiance.

John Honaker. -A youth. Born in Fayette. Says he was always a secessionist. his father voted for secession. His father and mother were from home when he was arrested. Says his horse was taken. He went to get him and was arrested. I recommend his discharge on taking the oath of allegiance.

Dr. J. H. Rouse. -Born in Ohio; says he was in favor of the Union till Virginia seceded. Was willing to abide by her action and to remain neutral if he could. He is willing to take the oath of allegiance. Seems to have been arrested on account of rumors. He was communisioner of the United States and postmaster. From the testimony of the witnesses it appears that a young man living in Doctor Rouse's drug store went to Ohio to visit his father and brought over the mails without reference to the political sentiments of persons to whom the letters and documents were addressed. This was repeatedly done after the mails were stopped in Cabell County, but Rouse seems to have permitted this as a matter of kindness to his neighbors and not as an officer of the Governor or as a partisan. He denies he was commissioner, and it is proved that J. C. Wheeler was commissioner and tried all the political cases in the county. Is proved to be a man of good character and a quiet peaceable citizen. I recommend he be discharged on taking the oath of allegiance.

Stephen Eades. -Born in Albermarle County, Va. ; has lived in Fayette County seven or eight years; voted against secession, but declared his willingness to abide by and support the result in the State; joined the Southern militia called out by authority of Governor Letcher, but after being one day in camp he was sent home to await further orders; proved to be a peaceable, quiet citizen; says he never had naything to do with the Northern Army or Government. Witnesses examined, Mr. Coleman, delegate in Virginia Legislature from Fayette and Nicholas; Mr. Alderson, of State Senate. I recommend he be discharged on taking the oath of allegiance.

William H. Jones. -Born in Fluvanna; has lived in Fayette three years; is a slave owner, opposed to abolition; keeps a tavern near Dogwood Camp; some of the enemy in passing got their dinners at his house; he says he avoided communication with them and has never had communication with the Northern Army; was a Union man but willing to go out of the Union if Virginia seceded; is willing to take the oath of allegiance to Virginia and the Confederate States. I recommend his discharge on taking these oaths. Same witnesses examined as in the above cases.

Samuel Short. -Born in Halifax County, Va. ; raised in Franklin; has lived in Fayette ten years; is a secessionist; was arrested by independent scouts (a species of force not belonging to any military organization) who took from him two horses that have never been returned to him or delivered to the military authorities; was bitterly hostile to the abooition feeling in Fayette; is a quiet, peaceable, industrious man; has had no connection with the Northern Army; has furnished supplies to our army; supposed to be arrested in consequence of rumors started by the men who took his horses. I recommend his discharge. Witnesses examined, Mr. Coleman, Mr. Alderson.

Henry Worrall. -Born in Rhode Island; has lived in Wayne three or four years; voted against secession; had had no connection with the Peirpoint government. Recongnizes the government of Virginia and the Confederate Government as his government. I recommend his discharge on taking the oath of allegiance. Witness, Beekman.

George Hunt. -Born in Massachusetts; has lived in Fayette County for ten years; has taken no part in the contest; voted against secession but considered himself bound by the act of secession to support the constitution and laws of Virginia and of the Confederate States. Man of good character and an orderly, quiet citizen. He had no connection with the Federal army and has given it no aid. I recommend his discharge on taking the oath of allegiance. Witnesses, Mr. Coleman, Mr. Alderson.

Samuel T. Walker. - Born in Fairfax; lives near Great Falls. Was in our service as a wagon-master from 1st of September to Christmas, when the transportation was turned over to Major Barbour. Walker continued at Centerville with a Mr. Hubbell, going with his teams to Gainesville and Manassas. In Febraury he received a letter from his wife informing him of the death of one of their children and her own sickness and asking him to remove her within our lines. He procured a pass to go out by Picket Numbers 5, but finding this would delay him too long he procured the officer in charge to alter it to Numbers 7. On his return he was arrested for his offense. I am satisfied from the testimony of various witnesses that Walker is fathful to the South and is a truthful and respectable man. He is the same man mentioned in Lieutenant Emach's letter returned with Rowzie's case. I think he has been sufficient punished for his offense. I recommend his discharge on taking the oath of allegiance.

William P. Spear. - Age fifty-two. Born in Essex County, N. J. ; moved to Virginia in 1840; carpenter. Owns a farm but no negroes; hires hegroes. Was a Breckinridge Democrat and a secessionist. Arrested by order of General Stuart. Says he had no communication with the enemy. Has fed the pickets without charge and nursed the sick Confederates at his house. He is proved to be a man of good character. General Winder informs me he can employ this man as a carpenter. I recommend his discharge on taking the oath of allegiance and agreeing not to go to our lines ecampments.

James Oscar Wren. - Born in Fairfax. I submit with this case General Stuart's order and the statement of Messrs. Thomas and Huntt. He says he never passed our pickets knowingly. Never was a dealer in liquor. Says he kept liquors and sold some to his neighbors as medicine. Says when the army fell back last October he took a negro woman and his other movable property to Prince William and staid there till Christmas. He then returned, got his negro man and took him back to Fraquier out of reach of the enemy. Owns only two negroes and he has placed them in our lines to save them from the Yankees. He says on his return from Fauquier he heard he had been charged with selling whisky and thinks the reports were got up by Thompson to injure him. He voted for secession. This man is said by Messrs. Thomas and Huntt to be a man of good character. It is difficult to reconcile his statement with General Sutart's order, but as General Stuart says he is regarded as a dangerous man to be beyond the outposts and is faithful to the South, I recommend he be discharged on taking the oath of allegiance and promising not to go to any place in the vicinity of our camps.

Oliver Jarrett. - Lives on Cabin Creek, Kanawha County, six miles above its mouth. Voted against secession, but when States seceded went with it. Has never had anything to do with Northern troops. Once saw a party passing down the creek, but he kept out of their way. Has been from home once to buy groceries. Went to Malden; saw no Northern troops there. Willing to take the oath of allegiance. I recommend this man be discharged on taking the oath.

Seth Jarrett. - Brother of the above; makes the same statement with his brother, except he says when Wise's Legion was on the Kanawha he worked of fix guns and swords for Slusher Brady, Augustus Manser and other persons who were going to join the Southern army. Will take the oath of allegiance. I recommend his discharge on taking the oath. Note that these men were in the hospital when the other Paint and Cabin Creek men were examined, and the general remarks I made as to those men apply to the two now under consideration, viz, I think all these men were removed as a measure of precuation when our army was on the Kavawha.

James M. Cornan. - Born in Greebrier County; removed to Nicholas County; is a farmer. Says he did not vote on the question of secesion. Was a Union man until Virginia seceded; now he is for the Confederacy. Says he was arrested at home. When the enemy tok possession of the country they camped near his house. He says they came to his house in search of corn. He could not resist them and permitted them to take what they wanted, and they told him if he would go to their camp they would give him coffee for the corn they had taken. He went to the camp and got coffee. Says he served in the militia till he was honorably discharged by his commanding officer. He has a brother serving in the Wise Legion. He is willing to take the oath of allegiance. Mr. Anderson, senator in the State legislature, and Mr. Robinson, prosecuting attorney, both give this man a high character for integrity and veracity and say he has the character of a Southern men. I recommend has discharge on taking the oath of allegiance.

Noah Getz, Hardy County. - Says he voted for the Union but is willing to abide by the decision of Virginia to secede. Supports the State. Has never joined the home guard. Says he had intended to move to Ohio since he was married. He started to go there and was stoppoed by the home guard at Shell's Gap and turned back. Staid a day with his family at Shell's Gap. Served with the militia and fought against the Yankees at Petersburg. Says he will support the South and is willing to take the oath of allegiance. Of this man Wilhite in his deposition says: Was with them several days at Shell's Gap. Wanted to move his family to Ohio, but could not get through. He been in a fight in Petersburg of the side of the South. Was with them at Mill Creek and has drilled with them. He seems to be an ignorant man not acquainted with the condition of the country, but I think is with the South. I recommend his discharge on taking the oath of allegiance.

Ross Winans may be discharged upon renewing the parole which he gave on his former arrest.

John O'Brien. -An old man; says he was born in Harrison County; moved to the head of the Little Kanawha, thence to the Sandy Fork of Elk, thence to Webster. The old man has spent his life in the woods hunting and seems to be very ignorant of what is going on the settlements. Has a great respect for the old Commonwealth of Virginia and great contempt and hatred for the attempted government at Wheeling. Does not seem to know much of the difference between the United States and Confederate States, but is willing to take the oath of allegiance to the old State of Virginia and any government she belongs to. Mr. McLaughlin proves he is a man of good character ignorant of all thigs going on in the settlements. He lives remote from settlements in the woods, and makes his living by hunting and digging ginseng. Mr. Robinson, prosecuring attorney of Nicholas, proves his general character is good. Has a son in Swann's company, Tompkins' regiment, Wise Legion. I recommend his discharge on taking the oath of allegiance.

Sampson Stover. -Born in Franklin; moved to Lawrence County, Ky., where he was separated from his wife; moved back to Raleigh, where he has lived sevaral years. Says his children left him several years ago and went to Ohio. Has heard nothing from them. Says he has had nothing to do with the Yankees or Union men. Is willing to take the oath of allegiance. I have no evidence about this man, and from his examination I can find no cause for detaining him. I recommend his discharge on taking the oath of allegiance.

William Deekins. -Of Raleigh; says he is a Southern man in his feelings and action. Had nothing to d with the Yankees or Union men. Saw some of the Yankees passing to Raleigh. Had not communication with them. I recommend his discharge on taking the oath of allegiance.

William Weston. -Sent with the three above-named men. Says he was born in Fairfax County, Va. Is twenty-seven years old. In June last went to Washington as a hand on board the Lady of the Lake, a boat owned either by Samuel Dentz or Silas Dentz. Silas Dentz, son of Samuel dentz, was captain. The boat was loaded with wood, twentysix or twenty-seven cords, a full load. The prsoner says the boat was loaded at Accotink Mills. He was there and went up the see his sister who was married to James Water, of Washington, intending to bring her back. Dents said it was the last trip he would make. Prisoner says he was taken sick and remained in Washington two months. He then left in company with F. Magruder. Magruder bought a skiff in which he and Magruder escaped from Washington, In nine days after his return he was arrested. Daniel Regan was a hand on board the boat. Prisoner says he had mustered in Pohick Church in May with some of the home guards, Burk commanding. In this case May with some of the home guards, Burk commanding. in this case the trip of the prisoner to Washington in the latter part of June and his remaining there for two months properfly subjected him to suspicion and I cannot at present recommend his discharge. But the subsequent examination of F. Magruder satisfied me Weston was sick, and anxious to escape from Washington and I therefore recommend his discharge.

Joseph Plaskett. -Born in England. Lived in Fairfax nearly eight years. Has remained closely at home since the war began. Has only once in ten weeks been to mill. Says he is friendly to the Southern cause. Gave one valuable horse to a Fairfax company of cavalry; another impressed for the Southern army. Has had no communication of any kind with the enemy. Mr. Hunt and Mr. Thomas proved him to be a man of good character. I recommend his dischaerge on taking the oath of allegiance.

Elias Beach. -Says he was born in Fairfax. Lives two miles and a half from Occoquan within our lines. Passed our lines once to go to mill at Accotink. Has had no communication with the enemy. Has not been to Alexandria since the middle of June, when he went to bring from Alexandria the cousin of his wife, Alfred Beach. Alfred Beach was a soldier in the Confederate service. Messers. Hunt and Thomas proved him to be a man of good character. I recommend his discharge.

Fielding Magruder. -Prisoner says he was born in Charels County, Md. Removed to the city of Washington in the year 1830. Was engaged there in keeping a wood and lumber yard. Twelve years ago he purchased land in Virginia on Occoquan Bay. Three years ago he started a steam saw-mill on this land and fixed his own residence there, going up to Washington every three or four weeks on Saturday night and returning on Monday. His wife and his son reside in Washington. His son keeps a wood yard there. Prisoner considers himself now a citizen of Virginia. His place was within the Federal lines when he was taken. Says he went to Washington a day or two after Alexandria was taken. The Federal provost-marshal gave him a general pass to go up and return at pleasure. Went up to Washington once or twice after Alexandria was taken and before his last trip. Prisoner says he was taken sick at his residence at Occoquan and called in Doctor Whitehead. The doctor remained with him several days and advised him to go to Washington where he could have the attention of his wife and be better nursed. He went to Washington, where he was sick three weeks, and after his recovery remained some weeks. He says he found the state of things in Washington so much worse and distasteful to him than it had formerly been that he did not apply for a passport, but determined to make his escape. He applied to several longboatmen to bring him down, but they told him they had been required to give bond and security in &500 not to touch on the Virginia shore and would not take him. He met William Weston (mentioned above), who had been sick in Washington, who agreed to escape with him. He purchased a skiff and in the night went down the river on the Maryland side until after they passed Alexandria, when they went over to the Virginia side. On the Monday after his return he went to the picket at Mrs. Wiley's and reported himself and was permitted to return home. Subsequently he was arrested with others, taken to Dumfrees where he lay several weeks in jail and thence was sent here. Is a slave-owner. I knew Mr. Magruder in Washington before he started his steam mill in Virginia. His general character for veracity was good. He was considered an honest man. I was satisfied from his general character and from conversation with him he was a Southern man in his political feelings and opinions. I recommend his discharge on taking the oath of allegiance. (NOTE: On the statement he makes of Weston's sickness and desire to escape from Washington I recommend the discharge of Weston.)

Charles Arundel. -Prisoner says he was born in Fairfax County, Va. Was arrested by orders of Colonel Robinson. Prisoner keeps tavern. Has a blacksmith shop and is a farmer. Never was in enemy's lines. Had had no communication with them. Was in Washington last January. Has not been there since. Did not know for what he was arrested. Was told by ex-Governor Smith who interested himself in his case that he was charged with selling whisky to our soldiers. Says he never did so. Picket was stationed, the officer and men took their meals with him, but he never sold spirits to the men. He was an original secessionist. Voted for seccesion from the beginning. At the last election of Confederate States went to Prince William to vote for Davis as President and for William Smith for Confederate Congress. Has a son in the Confederate army. Colonel Brawner and Mr. Thomas state prisoner is a man of good character, and was always a secessionist. I recommend the discharge of this man. H. W. Thomas, senator, and Colonel Brawner, representative from Fairfax, Prince wiliam County, proves he is a secessionist. Always voted the Southern ticket and voted for secession. Has procured provisions and forage for our troops, and has done blacksmith work for them. I recommend his discharge.

Samuel Bays. -Born in Fayette County, Va. Lived some time in Boone County, and returned to Fayette last spring. Offered to vote for secession in May last, but his vote was rejected because he had not been in the country twelve months. Has always been a Southern rights man. Was probably arrested because there was a general removel of the citizensin the rear of General Floyd's army. Bays' brother-in-law was in the army. He is a man of good character, and of a family sound in the Confederate cause. I recommend his discharge on taking the oath of allegiance. Witnesses, Colonel Coleman, W. Atchison.

Isaac Williams. -Aged fifty-one. Born in Giles County, moved to Fayette. Says he was arrested by Caskie Rangers when he was going to mill. Does not know for what cause. Says he supposes he was charged with being a Union man. Denies he was a Union man. Admits he voted against secession but says he did not know then the Union was broken. Says as soon as he understood the Union was broken he stood by the State of Virginia and the South. Man of good character. Opposed Peirpoint's government. Witness, Coleman. I recommend Williams' discharge on taking the oath of allegiance.

Stewart Armstrong. -Born in Greenbrier. Moved to Fayette when he was a boy. Twenty-five years old now. Voted against secession, but turned when he heard the Union was broken; supported the South. Is opposed to the Federalist Never saw the Yankee army or had any communication with them. Willing to take the oath of allegiance. Fair character. I recommend his discharge on taking the oath of allegiance.

Wednesday, September 09, 2009

Let Me Sleep.

Lieutenant Colonel Samuel W. Owens.
3d., Pennsylvania cavalry.

Photo can be enlarged by pushing on it.
In war there are a lot of things one can learn to live with out but sleep wasn’t one, ever one needs sleep even the enemy, sleep was used as a weapon against each army. Take the union army they had a tactic where they would shell the enemy’s defenses on the hour, in one campaign it lasted for two weeks. Although this kind of tactic worked for both sides it also worked against them as will, for the ones who were doing shelling won’t getting any sleep either. It was not only the non-commons that were losing sleep the officers were finding littler and littler time for it as will. In one campaign Sherman had to write to one of his generals a General Cores, who could not find time to sleep, Sherman told Core to hand over his command to some of his offices and take a much need rest, but Core refused saying he would rest when he could. Well General Sherman didn’t take to having his orders disobeyed and wrote back saying he was to remove himself and take his rest, or he would be forced to remove him from command.

As a young man I watched a lot of cavalry movies and in some of the scenes you would see a line on soldiers marching along dragging themselves along in a fight to keep standing, from this scene you would think they had been in a grate battle. But in truth they been marching all night to get to the battle. I found while researching that although both armies did march during the day it was a short distances of seven or fourteen miles in a day with maybe a small skirmish or a lesser known battle thrown in. The soldiers march would start at 6:30 or 7 A. M. they would move for a hour then have breakfast then start again and march till 12 or 1 P. M. then have lunch.

After a small rest they would be on the move again and would march till almost dark then make camp. But there would be no time for sleep as there were duty’s to perform. Those soldiers that were luck to get a little sleep were awaken at 2 A. M. to start a new march and the column would march all night and keep moving till they got to their destination which may have been thirty or forty miles from where they started. Now one would think the soldiers would get to sleep some, but it’s not the army’s way there’s a battle to be fought.

The battle would be fought off and on through out the day then as night approached the armies would pull back and one side or the other would claim victory of the battle. Now was the time for sleep? Not in this army there were your duty’s to perform then maybe you can close your eyes for a short while. And a short time it would be as you were awaken at 2A. M. to start a new march and head for a new battle.

When reaching a battle ground they may know or may not know when a fight would start.
If the intelligence reports were good the commander knew the battle would come towards morning around 3 or 4 A. M., if the commander knew a fight was imminent he would give a standing order, the infantry will sleep ( on arms ) which meant to sleep with their rifles at the ready, the cavalry would keep the horses harnessed and at the ready. The artillery would sleep ( Under arms ) which meant that the cannons would be pointed in the direction they thought the charge would come from and they would be primed and at the ready and the cannoneers would sleep under or beside their cannons and when the charge came they could jump up and fire the first volley without aiming. Sleep was in such short supply that the men would refuse to go to the front unless they were given a chance to sleep one Iowa regiment mutinied because of the lack of sleep.

In the following information you will read bits and pieces from reports about sleep and the lack of it and the problems that were caused for not having enough.


Each regiment and battalion will take up its position in line of battle, just after dark, and sleep upon its arms. The horses of the light artillery will be kept harnessed in readiness during the night, and when the infantry sleeps upon its arms, the guns will also be in position. The troops of Colonel Hamilton's command will be kept harnessed in readiness during the night, and when the infantry sleeps upon its arms, the guns will also be in position.

In the Field, Kingston, October 11, 1864-2. 20 p. m.

General CORSE:

I have just seen Colonel Raum. I think you had better lay down now and take a good long sleep. Give some staff officer general instructions as to scouts, and let him communicate to me direct.

ROME, GA., October 11, 1864-4 p. m.

Major-General SHERMAN:

I am profoundly grateful for your sympathy and proud of your confidence. Would willingly obey your order, but sleep is out of the question. Nature will assert rights at the proper time I have no doubt.


In the Field, Kingston, October 11, 1864-4. 45 p. m.

General CORSE:

I have just received your telegram. I order you to rest. Don't get your mind so nervous as to fail sleep.


August 25, 1864.
Brigadier General J. B. CARR, First Division:

I am instructed by Major-General Ord to say that you need not keep your reserves formed any longer, but that he wishes you to have your troops sleep on their arms, in preparation for any night attack. Half an hour before daylight to-morrow you will have all your troops under arms and ready for any emergency.

Major General H. W. HALLECK,

We are doing everything possible, and our capacity is abundant for more than all you require, if we can only have trains promptly unloaded at destination, and the military authorities will permit their early return. Our men are laboring most faithfully, although many are greatly exhausted. The round trip should be made in thirty hours, whilst our enginemen, firemen, and conductors have been hours kept without sleep for seventy-five to ninety hours. Some rest must be had, or sleep on duty and accidents will follow.

BALTIMORE, July 9, 1863.

Captain Upton commanding, accompanied by Captain R. T. Dunham, of my staff.

From the night of May 27 until June 14, we occupied this line. Another partially successful assault was then made. An incessant and harassing fire was kept up upon the enemy night and day, leaving him without rest or sleep.

June 14, The fighting had been incessant night and day for a period of twenty-one days and nights, giving the enemy neither rest nor sleep.

Chattanooga, Tenn., August 22, 1864.

SIR: I have the honor to report that since my return to duty, June 1 last, I have been endeavoring to obtain the necessary information, from the several regiments that composed my command, to enable me to render you an accurate report of my expedition in April, 1863; but, owing to the absence of most of my officers (who are still confined as prisoners of war) and the scattered condition of the men, I have been unable to collect as many of the particulars as I had intended.

Colonel Fifty-first Indiana Veteran Volunteer Infantry.

Note . This is just a small part of his report.

I then ascertained that there was a bridge some 7 or 8 miles up the river, near Gaylesville, and procured new guides and pushed on as rapidly as possible in order to reach the bridge before the enemy should take possession of it. We had to pass over an old coal chopping for several miles, where the timber had been cut and hauled off for charcoal, leaving innumerable wagon roads running in every direction, and the command was so worn out and exhausted that many were asleep, and in spite of every exertion I could make, with the aid of such of my officers as were able for duty, the command became separated and scattered into several squads, traveling in different directions, and it was not until near daylight that the last of the command had crossed the river. The bridge was burned, and we proceeded on and passed Cedar Bluff just after daylight. It now became evident that the horses and mules could not reach Rome without halting to rest and feed.

Large numbers of the mules were continually giving out. In fact, I do not think that at that time we had a score of the mules drawn at Nashville left, and nearly all of those taken in the country were barefooted, and many of them had such sore backs and tender feet that it was impossible to ride them; but, in order to get as near as possible to the force I had sent ahead, we struggled on until about 9 a. m., when we halted and fed our animals. The men, being unaccustomed to riding, had become so exhausted from fatigue and loss of sleep that it was almost impossible to keep them awake long enough to feed. We had halted but a short time, when I was informed that a heavy force of the enemy was moving on our left, on a route parallel with the one we were marching on, and was then nearer Rome than we were.

About the same time I received this information our pickets were driven in. The command was immediately ordered into line, and every effort made to rally the men for action, but nature was exhausted, and a large portion of my best troops actually went to sleep while lying in line of battle under a severe skirmish fire. After some maneuvering, Forrest sent in a flag of truce, demanding the surrender of my forces. Most of my regimental commanders had already expressed the opinion that, unless we could reach Rome and cross the river before the enemy came up with us again, we should be compelled to surrender.

Consequently I called a council of war. I had learned, however, in the mean time, that Captain Russell had been unable to take the bridge at Rome. Our condition was fully canvassed. As I have remarked before, our ammunition was worthless, our horses and mules in a desperate condition, the men were overcome with fatigue and loss of sleep, and we were confronted by fully three times our number, in the heart of the enemy's country, and, although personally opposed to surrender, and so expressed myself at the time, yet I yielded to the unanimous voice of my regimental commanders, and at once entered into negotiations with Forrest to obtain the best possible terms I could for my command, and at about noon, May 3, we surrender as prisoners of war.

This statement was in a report given by, EARL VAN DORN, Major-General.
October 20, 1862.

The heavy guns were silenced and all seemed about to be ended when a heavy fire from fresh troops from Iuka, Burnsville, and Rienzi, that had succeeded in reaching Corinth in time, poured into our thinned ranks. Exhausted from loss of sleep, wearied from hard marching and fighting, companies and regiments without officers, our troops-let no one censure them-gave way. The day was lost.

Report of Colonel Thomas T. Munford, Second Virginia Cavalry, of operations in May and June.

That night we were halted in rear of General Taylor's brigade, who were cooking rations about two and one-half hours. The Sixth Regiment (cavalry) was in the rear, and our men were completely worn down and most of them sleeping on their horses. Captain Dulany, now colonel of the Seventh Cavalry, was in command of the rear guard, [and] was approached by the Yankee cavalry. It was dark, and when challenged they replied, "Ashby's cavalry." Having been previously informed that General Ashby had one company out, he allowed them to approach very near, and suddenly they fired a volley and charged him.

The Sixth Cavalry were surprised and dashed through the Second, who were sleeping and relying upon the Sixth to guard the rear, as we had alternated each day with that regiment. Colonel Dulany was badly shot in the leg and several of his men were captured. To add to the confusion thus created, a part of the Seventh Louisiana fired into our ranks. This was our first surprise. Many of our men were nearly exhausted from hunger and loss of sleep. We had been in the saddle and had no regular rations for three days.

Colonel Jacob Ammen's diary of march to and battle at Pittsburg Landing, Tenn.

The men are as comfortable as the enemy in front and the falling rain and want of shelter will permit, and certainly much more cheerful and prompt and obedient than I could expect. My staff officers, my escort, and myself are between the two lines of the Tenth Brigade. The guns fired at intervals from the gunboats break the stillness of the night, but do not prevent sleep. It is after midnight, rain falling, and I am sitting at the root of a large tree, holding my horse, ready to mount if necessary. Sleep, sweet, refreshing sleep, removes all my anxieties and troubles for two hours.

In the Field, near Jones' Landing, Va., July 1, 1864.

Part of a report given by, SAMUEL P. SPEAR, Colonel, Commanding Brigade.
In closing my report it gives me great pleasure to state that my acting assistant adjutant-general, Lieutenant J. Frank Cummings, of the Fifth Pennsylvania Cavalry, performed his duty nobly, gallantly; and ever ready at all times and with but six hours' sleep in severely-two consecutive hours, he never faltered. My orders were conveyed with promptness and dispatch, which all proves that this young and faithful officer is fully worthy and fully competent for a better and higher position than he now occupies.

Reports of Lieutenant Colonel Charles Cummings, Seventeenth Vermont Infantry, of operations June 12-July 30.

IN THE FIELD, Near Petersburg, June 20, 1864.

SIR: The Ninth Army Corps left their intrenchments near Cold Harbor at dark on the night of the 12th and with but four hours' sleep arrived near James River on the night of the 14th. We here halted until 8 p.m. of the following day, when we moved toward the river, crossing at 11 p.m.

Report of Lieutenant Colonel James W. Langley, One hundred and twenty-fifth Illinois Infantry, commanding THIRD Brigade.

Near Savannah, Ga., January 3, 1865.

The date of our departure from Atlanta, it rained heavily every day, rendering the roads from Athens to Florence very muddy, besides swelling the numerous streams to their banks. These streams we were compelled to ford, with the exception of Shoal Creek, which had a good bridge. The men were drenching wet, adding greatly to the weight of their loads, and their sleep, though sound, was the sleep of exhaustion and afforded them but little rest; besides, many were barefoot and footsore.

Report of Lieutenant Colonel Horace P. Lamson, Fourth Indiana Cavalry, commanding Second Brigade.

Daylight next morning found them comparatively safe upon the north bank of the river, though both men and beasts were very much worn down for the want of food and sleep, and the march before them that day was seventy-five miles to Sweet Water bridge, in order to find a safe camping place.


But few days had passed that every man of the division was not under fire, both of artillery and musketry. No one could say any hour that he would be living the next. Men were killed in their camps, at their meals, and several cases happened of men struck by musket-balls in their sleep, and passing at once from sleep into eternity. So many men were daily struck in the camp and trenches that men became utterly reckless, passing about where balls were striking as though it was their normal life, and making a joke of a narrow escape, or a noisy whistling ball.

In the Field, May 8, 1864.

Report by, COLTON GREENE, Colonel, Commanding Brigade.

April 29, still marching; got on enemy's right flank; got on his rear between Tulip and Princeton; Jeffers' regiment and Wood's battalion in my front; attack enemy's rear on Jenkins' Ferry road; sent Harris' battery forward; again attacked the enemy, who halts on the Saline River; skirmish with him until dark; distance traveled from Wire road to Saline River, 90 miles, without feed for hoses or rations and sleep for men.

Report of Captain Joseph Gloskoski, Twenty-ninth New York Infantry, Acting Signal Officer.

The first night of our march was beautiful. Myriads of stars twinkled in heaven, looking at us as if in wonder why should we break the laws of God and wander at night instead of seeking repose and sleep. The moon threw its silvery light upon Rapidan waters when we forded it, and it seemed as if the Almighty Judge was looking silently upon our doings.

I barely escape capture, for riding out on reconnaissance to learn where we were and the roads, I found rebel pickets on each road, and some were trying to cut me off on my return to camp. We were not destined to sleep in that camp, for no sooner were we laid down than the rebels opened fire on our regiments.

From a report by, JOS. WHEELER, Major-General.

About 3 a. m. the command came up much worn and exhausted, half of the men having lost two nights' sleep, and during the march of the preceding day had necessarily received short allowance of rations.

From a report by, J. M. HALL, Colonel Fifth Alabama Regiment.

I caused my men to work greater portion of that night and the next day, although they were suffering very much for want of rest and sleep, not having had any repose of consequence for the two preceding nights.

Part of a report given by G. T. BEAUREGARD, General, Commanding.

At the City of Charleston, S. C.

He was writing to General G. T. BEAUREGARD, Commanding Confederate States Forces, Charleston, S. C.:

It would appear, sir, that despairing of reducing these works, you now resort to the novel measure of turning your guns against the old men, the women and children, and the hospitals of a sleeping city, an act of inexcusable barbarity from your own confessed point of sight, inasmuch as you allege that the complete demolition of Fort Sumter within a few hours by your guns seems to you "a matter of certainty."

Your omission to attach your signature to such a grave paper must show the recklessness of the course upon which you have adventured; while the facts that you knowingly fixed a limit for receiving an answer to your demand which made it almost beyond the possibility of receiving any reply within that time, and that you actually did open fire and throw a number of the most destructive missiles ever used in war into the midst of a city taken unawares, and filled with sleeping women and children, will give you "a bad eminence" in history, even in the history of this war.

Report of Colonel John C. Lee, Fifty-fifth Ohio Infantry.

The second night was spent in the crossing at Kelly's Ford, and, with the heave load, served to fatigue the command; yet the march of the next day was cheerfully made. To cross the Rapidan and picket the front of the division prevented sleep after 1 a. m. on Wednesday night.
The march of the 30th was readily accomplished, and on the two following nights sleep was allowed.

Report of Colonel Robert H. G. Minty, Fourth Michigan Cavalry, commanding brigade.

We had marched 56 miles. Some of the men had had one hour's sleep, and the others no sleep whatever. At 6.30 I resumed the march for Murfreesborough, arriving at Stone's River at 10 o'clock. I halted for a couple of hours to rest the horses, and then returned to

Report of Col. M. F. Locke, C. S. Army, Tenth Texas Cavalry (dismounted).

I did not allow any fire, and the blankets having been left at camp, the men suffered very much; and but for the fact that they had been lying on their arms without sleep for two nights previous, sleep would have been impossible.

Near Big Laurel, Ky., October 19, 1862 - 11 a. m.

Report by, E. KIRBY SMITH, Major-General, Commanding.

My command, from exhaustion in drawing the wagons and artillery up the hills and not having had sleep for some nights, are very much scattered along the road.

Statement of Captain F. M. Hughes.

Two companies had been detached the evening before. I think some of the pickets were asleep. It was usual for the pickets on the same post to take turns sleeping.
Statement of Captain H. J. O'Neill.

I had 36 men with me at the time of the attack. Some were washing and cooking and the balance of my company were distributed about at bridges. I usually had pickets our in the immediate vicinity of my camp. We never had pickets out during the day. I often found pickets sleeping on their posts while I was in camp.

HDQRS.5TH MICH. INF.,3rd Brigadier, KEARNY'S DIV.,3rd CORPS, Army of the Potomac, May 11, 1862.

Report by, H. D. TERRY, Colonel.

Our wounded have been well cared for and sent to the general hospital, for which I am indebted to the skill, care, and attention of the surgeon, Dr. Moses Gunn, the assistant surgeon, Dr. Everett, and the hospital steward, Dr. Adams. The dead sleep upon the field of our victory, and they sleep well. Their graves mark the spot where [beside the same breastworks] our Revolutionary fathers fought and fell before them, and though perhaps no report may be made of their devotion to the Union and the Constitution of the country, their surviving comrades will never forget them.
I could go on giving reports but I too, find myself getting tired and the need to sleep…..sleep……

Tuesday, September 08, 2009

Lets Eat!, Eating In The Civil War.

We all heard the old saying, ( the army travels on it’s stomach ) well this might be true but at some point in time, that old stomach will need to be filled. Both armies would find time to do just that, although they may only get one meal a day, if they were lucky two meals a day and if they were real lucky three.

I have touch on a lot of subjects over the years but I have not touch on the subject of meals. Now I will not go into great detail on the meals, but I thought it would be fun to put down when and where they took their meal, some of the places had funny sounding names. Both armies were on the march a lot so they had no regular time sat a side for meals but usually it was after a march of seven to fourteen miles at which time they would take a rest of about a hour then they were on the march again.

There is no way one could tell when every regiment was taken it’s meals but I will pick a few. I will cover all three meals. They may have breakfast at some farm in the morning and lunch beside a creek, then supper on the battle field. As many meals were far and in between they eat when ever they could.

Cook at the siege of Peterburg.

Note. Photos can be enlarged by pushing on them.


Tenth Michigan Infantry.

August 20, 1864, moved out to position of yesterday (leaving camp long before day) and took breakfast. August 29, moved out at for one mile and a half and threw up works and got breakfast. Nothing is said about any more meals for that day. On August 30, After getting dinner moved in an easterly course some three miles and a half, and halted and pitched camp in a pleasant grove. Marched seven miles. August 31, lay in camp until noon, then marched one-quarter of a mile to the right and occupied breast-works of troops which had marched out. Soon after, ordered out with everything and marched two miles to the right and formed line of battle, and bivouacked for the night.

Report of Major John M. Schofield, First Missouri Infantry, and Acting Adjutant-General Army of the West, of operations August 1-14.

On the morning of the third day the whole column was detained three hours for Colonel Sigel's brigade to have beef killed and cooked for breakfast, the remainder of the command having made their breakfast upon such as they had, and, with the exception of the Iowa Regiment, marched 6 miles before the killing of beef for Colonel Sigel's breakfast commenced.

By this time the clamor for relief became such that almost total anarchy reigned in the command. At length, after numerous entreaties from officers of the command, Major Sturgis resumed command of the army, giving as his reason for so doing, that, although Colonel Sigel had been for a long time acting as an officer of the army, he had no appointment from any competent authority.
On or about April 6, 1862.

While at breakfast, Edward N. Trembly, private Company C, First Regiment Illinois Artillery Volunteers, and on detached duty at headquarters, reported artillery firing in the direction of Pittsburg Landing. Breakfast was left unfinished.

Camp near Rogers' Gap, Tenn., June 17, 1862.
The column will march to meet the enemy to-morrow morning in the following order:

I. Carter's brigade, with Lanphere's battery and the two 20-pounders, and 100 cavalry, under command of Lieutenant-Colonel Munday, will march at 1 o'clock, on the new Valley road, entering it at its commencement on the Knoxville road, and proceed toward its intersection with the old Valley road. En route it will halt 45 minutes for breakfast at or near Kincaid's, where water may be best obtained, after which time the march will be resumed with caution.

III. Spear's brigade, conducted by Jefferson Powell and Daniel Cupp, as guides, will march, without wagons, at 1 o'clock, by the old Valley road to its intersection with the road leading from Alexander's across the Poor Valley Ridge. Upon arriving at the opposite side of that ridge the command will be halted for forty-five minutes for rest and breakfast.

V. De Courcy's brigade, with Foster's battery and the two 30-pounder siege guns and 50 cavalry as an advance guard, under Captain Roper, will march at 1.30 o'clock, on the old Valley road, parallel with Carter's brigade, and will halt forty-five minutes for breakfast at Big Spring, 5 1/2 miles east of Roger's Gap.

VII. If possible, the men of all the commands will be required to fill their canteens with strong coffee to-night for breakfast and supper on to-morrow.

XV. In consequence of intelligence just received as to the supposed position of the enemy, paragraph III of General Orders, No. 42, is hereby modified as follows: Spears' brigade will march with ammunition wagons on the New Valley road forty-five minutes after the rear of Carter's brigade has entered that road. En route General Spears will halt forty-five minutes for breakfast and rest at or near Kincaid's, where the canteens of the troops must be filled with fresh water.

By command of General Morgan:

Report of Lieutenant Commander Patrick U. Murphy, C. S. Navy, commanding gun-boat Selma.

Between 5 and 6 of the morning of the 5th it was reported to me a move was made by the fleet outside. I gave the order at once to get up steam, to weigh the anchor, and to lash it securely, then to go to breakfast, and, if we had time, for the crew to dress themselves in their best clothes. The Selma was lying to the south and east of the flag-ship, and much nearer the shore. After the anchor was weighed the steamer drifted up with the tide to the northward and eastward. While the crew were at breakfast the engagement commenced, and many shots were fired by both sides before I went to quarters; but as soon as the crew were through with their breakfast and the decks were cleared up I went to quarters and stood to northward and westward and as soon as I passed the stern of the Tennessee I opened fire on the enemy with all my guns.

U. M. LAURANCE, Major 107th Regiment Illinois Infantry Volunteers.

May 24, crossed the Etowah on pontoons at daylight, and moved out two miles and halted for breakfast; then moved up the Etowah to the residence of Colonel Ryal, where our skirmishers met a few dismounted cavalry and drove them before them; we halted for the night to protect the left and rear of our army. May 26, moved at 2.30 a. m.; crossed Pumpkin Vine Creek, and moved forward two miles and halted near battle-field of proceeding day for breakfast; at 8 a. m. moved on a road to the left, formed our corps, and moved to the left of the Army of the Cumberland.

Report of Captain Joseph H. Little, First Missouri Cavalry (Militia).

Early on the morning of the 25th the command was ordered to the scene of the mail robbery near the residence of Mr. Luther Green. Mr. Green stated that on the morning of the 22nd Quantrill, with about 25 men, came to his residence and demanded breakfast for himself and men, and while at breakfast the mail-coach passed and was hailed by Quantrill and the mail-bags opened and ransacked. Quantrill, having breakfasted, left in the direction of Chapel Hill. Having received this information I ordered immediate pursuit.

Colonel Thomas Moonlight, Eleventh Kansas Cavalry, commanding Northern Sub-District of the Plains.

On the morning of the 17th, of June 1865, I was just forty-eight hours out, I was 120 miles east-northeast of Laramie. The command had marched that morning about twenty miles before breakfast, and I halted on Dead Man's Fork to graze the horses and allow the men refreshment.

Report of Colonel James C. Briscoe, One hundred and ninety-ninth Pennsylvania Infantry.

Next morning, the 8th instant, marched at 6 a.m., and at midnight halted a short distance from Appomattox Station until 4 a.m. of the 9th instant. The men were very much fatigued, weary, and foot-sore, yet not a murmur was uttered as they fell in again for the march, none of them having had breakfast and but a few had had anything to east since noon of the previous days, as they were too tired after their thirty miles march to do anything save sink down beside their gun stacks and take the short sleep allowed them. Pushing on for a couple of miles, the command halted for breakfast, and again moved forward rapidly, passing at double-quick through Sheridan's cavalry camps.

HENRY H. WITHERS, Major Tenth West Virginia Vol. Infantry, Comdg. Regiment.

On the morning of the 19th I was very restless from some cause, and rose much earlier in the morning than usual; had taken my seat in my tent (about fifty distant from the part of the fortifications occupied by my regiment) and commenced eating my breakfast, when I heard several shots fired in tolerably quick succession; through, however, the pickets were disturbed by some unimportant event, until I heard a volley fired apparently from the left, where the Second Division were fortified; the almost immediately I heard a volley from our part of the fortifications (the part occupied by Third brigade, First Division), when, leaving my breakfast, I ran up to the extreme right of the line, where I encountered an enfilading fire.

Report of Colonel Embury D. Osband, THIRD U. S. Colored Cavalry, commanding expedition to Woodville.

The fight occurred near the residence of Judge McGehee, who had breakfast cooked for the rebels. Our men ate the breakfast without difficulty, and giving Judge McGehee half an hour to move out of his residence, burned it, together with the quarters he had erected for the use of the rebels.



May 8, broke camp at 9 a. m., crossed Taylor's Ridge, halted one hour for lunch at Gordon's Springs, made a long evening's march, halted for supper; broke camp again at dark, marched three miles, and encamped on mountain.

Cooks in the kichen of soldier's rest, Alexandria,Va.

Surgeon and Medical Director, Army of the Potomac.
Brigadier General S. WILLIAMS, U. S. A., Assistant Adjutant-General.

Directions for cooking in camp.

The importance of soup as a diet for troops is not sufficiently apprehended except by veteran soldiers those of experience in the field. It cannot be too highly esteemed, and should be used to a much greater extent than it is. Been soup, when properly made, is one of the best that can be used; when improperly made, one of the worst. The beans must be washed, steeped in water overnight, put on the fire at reveille, and boiled slowly for six hours; a piece of pork, say one ration for three men, put in three hours before dinner; this, eaten with a little pepper and vinegar, makes a wholesome and palatable dish. The cooking is everything; if not well done, it is positively injurious; if well done, it is wholesome. The great principle in making soup is that it must be boiled slowly and for a long time; it cannot be boiled too much. In making beef soup all the bones should be used, together with half rations of beef rice, and desiccated and fresh vegetables, with salt and pepper; the desiccated vegetables should be steeped in water for two hours, and boiled with the soup for three hours; the rice should be added, after having been washed half and hour before the soup is served; the beef must first be put in cold water, and the soup kept at a low boil for five hours.

Beef should not in any case be used for cooking until cold. Hard bread will be more palatable and more easy of digestion if placed in the ashes until thoroughly heated; it can also be improved by breaking it in pieces in inch or two square and soaking it thoroughly in warm water, then placing it in a frying-pan with a few shoes of pork, and cooked for five minutes, stirring it, that all may be cooked alike. Such portions of beef as are not used in making soup should be cut in pieces about the size of a hen's egg, with half a ration of potatoes and a small-sized onion cut in slices to one man, and half a ration of desicated vegetables previously soaked in cold water for an hour, with a few small pieces of pork, adding salt and pepper, with water sufficient to cover well the ingredients, and stewed slowly for three hours, will make an excellent dish. Beef that is not used thus should be cooked on coals or held before them on a stick or fork, and no salt or pepper put on until cooked; the salt put on before cooking only assists in abstracting the juices of the meat and in making it dry and hard when cooked.

The secret in using the desiccated vegetables is in having them thoroughly cooked. The want of this has given rise to a prejudice against them which is unfounded; it is the fault of the cooking, and not of the vegetables. Pork should be boiled three hours, having been previously soaked in water, to abstract the salt, for three hours, the water being changed twice in that time; when cold and cut in slices, with a piece of bread and a slice of onion, it makes an excellent lunch; cut in slices and toasted over coals it is sweet and good. Coffee should be roasted over a slow fire, constantly stirring it until it becomes of a chestnut-brown color, and not burnt, as is so commonly done. It should be boiled for twenty minutes, set one side, sweetened, well stirred, and a little cold water added to cause the grounds to settle. Cabbage is more wholesome when cut in shreds and eaten with a little vinegar, pepper, and salt, than when cooked. All fried meats are unwholesome; they should be boiled or broiled.

Surgeon and Medical Director, Army of the Potomac.

From journal of Major General Jacob D. Cox, U. S. Army, 1865.

Tuesday, April 11. - Marched at daylight, but the pontoon and other trains ahead of us delayed us so that we did not make over three miles before noon and not over ten miles in the whole day. The stragglers of the army have become much worse than they were in the Atlanta campaign, Two of the best residences along our road were burned to-day. One, the house of a Mr. Atkinson, where I stopped at noon to take lunch, was in flames half an hour after we left it; the soldiers suspect him of being a conscription agent for the rebel government, and this may account for his house being burned.

Supplementary specifications to charge 2nd against Brigadier General William Dwight, U. S. Volunteers.

Specification 2nd.-In this: That Brigadier General William Dwight, U. S. Volunteers, commanding First Division, Nineteenth Corps, did, while the troops of his command were engaged with the enemy and hard pressed and in a critical part of the day, go to the rear beyond the presence of his troops and beyond the falling of the shot of the enemy, and in a place of comparative safety, and id remain there, together with his staff, or a part of it, and eat his dinner or lunch. This at the battle of the 19th of September, 1864, near Winchester, Va.

JAS. G. BLUNT, Major-General.

As my men came up wearied and exhausted, I directed them halted behind a little ridge, about one half mile from the enemy's line, to rest and eat a lunch from their haversacks. After two hours' rest, and at about 10 a. m., I formed them in two columns, one on the right of the road, under Colonel [William R. [Judson, the other on the left, under Colonel [William A.] Phillips.

Camp before Yorktown, Va., Sunday, April 13, 1862.

Agreeably to orders, early on Friday morning, April 4, I left New Market Bridge, Va., preceded by the Twenty-second Massachusetts Regiment, Colonel Gove, en route for Yorktown. After a pleasant and easy march, lunching at Big Bethel, where were joined by General Morell's brigade, we arrived about 5 o'clock p.m. at or near Cockletown.

Colonel Benjamin S. Roberts, Fifth New Mexico Infantry.
battle of Valverde, near Fort Craig, N. Mex., on the 21, February 1862.

The commands were fatigued with five hours' constant action, and while waiting the
arrival of the commanding colonel the men were permitted to lunch and ordered to replenish their cartridge-boxes. During this time the batteries continued to operate on the enemy whenever he displayed himself until Colonel Canby reached the field, fifteen minutes before 3 o'clock p. m.


JAMES FITZPATRICK, Lieutenant Colonel, Commanding 28th Regiment Penn. Vet. Vol. Infantry.

Second Rhode Island, &c. ; marched this day about twelve miles. 7th, left camp at 7 a.m. ; marched quite slowly until 12 m. ; stopped for dinner; started at 1. 30 p.m.

8th, left camp at 6 a.m. ; marched ten miles; halted for dinner one hour at 12. 30 p.m.

12th, left camp at 6 a.m. ; halted at 10 a.m. for dinner; started at 11. 30 a.m.

13th, left camp at 5. 30 a.m. ; crossed the South Anna River and the New Found River; halted three-quarters of an hour for dinner; started at 12 m.

14th, left camp at 5 a.m. ; marched five miles; crossed the North Anna River. Met the First Division, fourteenth Army Corps, at Chilesburg and went to the right of it. Halted for dinner at 12 m.

15th, the left camp at 5 a.m. ; marched through Spotsylvania Court-House, over the battle-grounds of Grant of May 8 to 14, 1864. Crossed the Po and Ny Rivers; halted for dinner one hour at the Ny. Many dead bodies lie exposed on the plains.

16th, left camp at 4. 30 a.m. ; marched by Hoartwood Church and United States Ford Gold Mines; halted one hour for dinner at 12 m. ; started again at 1 p.m.

18th, left camp at 9. 30 a.m. Orders to be ready at 7. 30 a.m. ; day hot and sultry. Marched slowly until 12 m. ; crossed the Occoquan River; halted for dinner one hour and a half. Started again at 1. 30 p.m.

19th, left camp at 6 a.m. ; passed Fairfax Station; Two hundred and second Pennsylvania Volunteers, Brevet Brigadier-General Albright commanding, at the station; ran into the First Division train; halted until they got out of the way; day cloudy and drizzling. Halted at 12 m. for dinner one hour; started at 1. 30 p.m.

Report of Colonel John Flynn, Twenty-eighth Pennsylvania Infantry, of operations September 2-December 21.

On the morning of November 15. We started from camp at 6. 30 a. M. and marched seven miles in the direction of Decatur, Ga; halted for dinner at 1 p. m. ; started again at 3p.m.

November 16, started at started at 9 a. m. and marched fast for a distance of twelve miles; halted for dinner at 2 p. m. one mile from Rock Bridge.

November 17, started at 6 a. m. ; marched until 12. 15 p. m; halted for dinner; started at 2 p. m. and marched to within six miles of Social Circle.

November 18, started at 5 a. m. ; passed through Social Circle, where we found the railroad depot destroyed; moved on and halted at Rutledge for dinner at 11. 30 a. m.

November 19, started at 5 a. m. ; passed through Madison at daylight; halted at 12 m. at Buck Head for dinner; started again at 1 p. m.

November 20, started at 7 a. m. and marched eight miles without incident; halted for dinner at 12 m. ; at 2 p. m. we started.

November 21, started at 7 a. m., the Twenty-eight Pennsylvania Veteran Volunteer Infantry in advance of the division; halted for dinner at 1. 30 p. m., and moved out again without incident at 2. 30 p. m.

November 22, started at 7 a. m. as rear guard for the division; after marching for four miles we crossed the Central railroad at Dennis Station. Here we rejoined the corps, which had been separated since we came from Madison on the 18th. We traveled slow in the direction of Milledgeville and halted for dinner at 1 p. m.

November 26, started at 8 a. m. as guard for the division quartermaster's train; halted at 9. 15 a. m. to reorganize the train; started again at 11 a. m. ; marched to within half a mile of Sandersville; we here halted for dinner.

November 27, commenced tearing up the track at 8 a. m. and worked until 1 p. m., when we rested for dinner.

November 28, went to work again on the railroad, about five miles west of Davisborough, at 7. 30 a. m., and halted at 1 p. m. for dinner

November 29, started at 7. 20 a. m., and marched to Spiers Station, when we halted for dinner.

November 30, started on the march again at 6. 45 a. m. ; marched quick and through swampy ground until 2 p. m., when we halted for dinner at the plantation of Doctor Blake, a great slave holder.

December 1, this day's march was without incident. We left Miller's plantation at 7. 25 a. m. and marched until 2 p. m., when we halted for dinner.

December 2, left camp at 6. 45 a. m. and marched until 12 m., when we halted for dinner.

December 4, started at 9. 30 a. m. and marched until 11 a. m. ; halted for dinner.

Report of Lieutenant Colonel Samuel M. Zulich, Twenty-ninth Pennsylvania infantry. November, December 1864.

26th, moved at 7 a. m. reached Sandersville at noon; halted one hour for dinner; marched to Tennille.

29th, moved at 7 a. m. ; halted for dinner at Bartow Station.

5th, started at 10 a. m. ; Companies K and f were detailed as a rear guard. After crossing the north branch of the Little Ogeechee these two companies were ordered to destroy, by fire, the saw-mill and bridge and break them dam. after the same had been opened and the road flooded, three foraging teams came in sight on the other side of the road. The men were ordered to cross the burning bridge, which they did, and succeeded in backing the flames and brought the teams and horses across in safety. Halted for dinner at the Little Ogeechee.

9th, marched at 8 a. m. ; halted at Monteith Swamp for dinner.

Camp of the 153d, New York Infantry.

Point Lookout prison.

Full diet: Dinner-beef or pork, 4 ounces; potatoes, 4 ounces; hardtack, 3 ounces. Breakfast and tea-coffee or tea, 1 pint; rice, 2 gills; molasses, 1 ounce; hard-tack, 3 ounces. Half diet: Dinner-meat, 2 ounces; potatoes, 3 ounces; hard-tack, 2 ounces. Breakfast and tea-coffee or tea, 1 pint; rice, 1 gill; molasses, half an ounce; hard-tack, 2 ounces. Low diet: Dinner-no meat; potatoes, 2 ounces; hard-tack, 1 ounce. Breakfast and tea-coffee or tea, 1 pint; rice, 1 gill; molasses; half an ounce; hard-tack, 1 ounce. Soup and soft bread is also given at least once a week. The cooking is done by their own men, and heard no complain in this quarter, except they were poorly supplied with cooking utensils and were very much in want of tin cups, knives and forks. The patients were required generally to eat with their fingers. They had a large cooking stove, but they complained it was not sufficient for their purpose, as it kept them at work nearly all the time.


ROME, October 11, 1864.
General SHERMAN:

Your dispatches to General Elliott I have received and sent to him. The details upon which I based my telegram I did not give you fully. Will add that Captain Peek, who is a cool, resolute officer, saw roads badly cut by artillery, heard noise of infantry in camp, and saw some officers [come] out of a house near camp; they were there getting supper.

Report of Major George E. Johnson, Twenty-ninth Pennsylvania Infantry, of operations January 27-March 25.

February 23, moved at 7 o'clock; marched seven miles and halted for supper; moved after supper; crossed Catawba River; so many wagons assigned to a regiment to be assisted up the hill (Liberty).

March 1, moved at 11. 30 o'clock, in charge of twenty-one wagons; crossed Buffalo Creek and halted for supper; crossed Big Lynch's Creek and went into camp at 8 o'clock, having marched fourteen miles.

JAMES C. RICE, Colonel, Commanding Outposts.

LIEUTENANT: In accordance with directions from the commanding officer of the brigade, I report the facts in regard to the capture of Major [William R.] Sterling and Captain Fisher, as related to me by the people of the house where they were taken. Major Sterling and Captain Fisher were on their way to communicate with General Pleasonton, when they halted at the residence of Mr. [Almond] Birch for supper, and to inquire how far it was to Aldie. Having finished their supper, they started for their horses, which were left with their orderly at the yard gate. The horses and orderly had been removed, and before Major Sterling and Captain Fisher had reached the gate, 10 or 12 cavalrymen seized them, and hurriedly mounted them and bore them off. This took place last evening at 10 o'clock, about 400 yards from the picket outpost, at the house of Mr. Birch, on the Little River turnpike. Mr. Birch and family are from Clifton Park, Saratoga Country, N. Y. They are Union people, known to some of the officers of our regiment.
I am satisfied that these people had no complicity with this affair, and had no knowledge of the enemy being anywhere near their house.

Report of Asst. Surg. Elias J. Marsh, U. S. Army, Surgeon-in-Chief, of operations July 30-December 12.*

The Second Brigade in advance of the infantry had gone into camp at Sussex Court-House and I therefore ordered the ambulance train to this place, directing the surgeon-in-charge to take the court-house or an empty dwelling house for and hospital. He selected the most convenient house, had all the wounded taken out, fires built, supper cooked, and wounds dressed. One case required amputation of arm, which was performed by Surgeon Le Moyne. The wounded were all made comfortable.
A report by T. J. STAUBER.

On the 23rd instant a party of rebels, under the command of a man named Purcell, formerly of this county, of Audrain, Mo., variously estimated at from 35 to 75 men, stopped and suppered at the houses of William Mason and Clem. Smith (Southern sympathizers), about 2 1\2 miles west of Mexico, Audrain County, Mo. On the same evening they robbed E. T. Jacobs of saddles, bridles, and all the money he had.

Report of Lieutenant Colonel William Rickards, jr., Twenty-ninth Pennsylvania Infantry.

April 29.-Had charge of the corps train this day. The train was cut and stopped by the Fifth Corps, which detained us until 3 p. m., when we crossed over, and by a rapid march reached the brigade near the Rapidan at 6 p. m.; halted, got supper, and then crossed the Rapidan at Germanna Ford on a foot-bridge, wagons and horses fording river; water 4 feet deep; halted on hill beyond the river and bivouacked; rained al night; marched 15 miles.

Report of Lieutenant Herbert Reed, Third Missouri Cavalry.

Fifty men in the command. Marched in a southerly direction until noon, then halted for feed and dinner 20 miles from Salem, on the Barren Fort of Sinking Creek. Marched down Sinking Creek in a southwestern direction 5 miles; then changed course to the south and marched 5 miles, which brought us to the Current River, and continued 4 miles down Current River in a southeastern direction and halted for supper. At 11 p. m. resumed the march in a southern direction 6 miles on the country road, and halted at the house of a certain Jackson Sugs. Searched the house, but found nothing.

Report of Major General Joseph Wheeler, C. S. Army, commanding Cavalry Corps.

As we were continually fighting the enemy, our camps could not be designated before night-fall. Details had then to be sent out to procure forage and rations, frequently making it midnight before supper could be prepared for my men, and then they were often compelled to be in the saddle before daylight. No men in the Confederate States have marched more, fought more, suffered more, or had so little opportunities for discipline; yet they are to-day as orderly and as well discipline; yet they are to-day as orderly and as well disciplined as any cavalry in the Confederate service.